Chapter 2: National Reform Programmes and Human Resources Development
2. National reform programmes and human resources development1 In its science and technology policy, China has moved from one extreme of total national control of all resources to a ﬂexible and open system which allows a great amount of freedom for foreign companies and domestic actors. However, since the early 1950s, national programmes for science and technology (S&T) development have received great attention, together with raising the level of human resources. An overview of the current innovation structure in China can be seen in Figure 2.1. EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL POLICY IN CHINA A ﬁrst major educational reform was implemented in 1952 when all universities were basically transformed into teaching universities, while most research was organized into research institutes directly controlled by line ministries. Most teaching universities were controlled by relevant ministries, such as the Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications. Many ministries organized their own research institutes and research activities, which were normally referred to as academies, for example the Academy of Telecommunications. Following the Soviet model, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was established in 1949 and soon became the main bastion for advanced scientiﬁc research, with a total employment that eventually reached more than 120 000, including also a large number of service functions. While industrial and technological development was formulated and implemented under formal ﬁve-year plans, speciﬁc long-term plans were formulated on several occasions for the development of science and technology. During a short period, 1958–59, the planned economy...
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