Chapter 9: Shanghai: From Development to Knowledge City
1 CREATING A KNOWLEDGE METROPOLIS The visitor to Shanghai immediately becomes aware of an expansive city skyline of skyscrapers and the expressways, and will soon become aware of the fact that Shanghai has built the ﬁrst maglev train to exist anywhere in the world. However, Shanghai is transforming itself in many ways that are less noticeable. Shanghai’s economic development is based on the twin pillars of knowledge creation and knowledge application. The latter has been strongly supported by the city’s attraction to foreign investment in a wide range of industrial activities. The former is coming to the forefront by a rapid expansion of higher education and scientiﬁc research, where foreign investors have also become active by setting up research laboratories. The city enrols more than 50 per cent of its senior high school students into colleges and universities. Three major universities among a total of some 60 colleges and universities are set to become recognized research universities by rapidly expanding their graduate training programmes and attracting research funds. Zhangjiang, the large high-technology park in Pudong across the river from old Shanghai, is known to almost everyone. In addition Shanghai has a handful of expanding technology parks, aside from science parks attached to major universities. Each of the city’s 11 districts has its own industrial park. Shanghai has 28 incubators, with at least one in each district, housing a total of some 20 000 companies. These changes in Shanghai’s technological and scientiﬁc landscape are not just top-down, driven from...
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