International Handbook on the Economics of Mega Sporting Events
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International Handbook on the Economics of Mega Sporting Events

Edited by Wolfgang Maennig and Andrew Zimbalist

From the Olympics to the World Cup, mega sporting events are a source of enjoyment for tens of thousands of people, but can also be a source of intense debate and controversy. This insightful Handbook addresses a number of central questions, including: How are host cities selected and under what economic conditions? How are these events organized, and how is local resistance overcome? Based on historical and empirical experience, what are the pitfalls for the organizers of these events? What are the potential economic benefits, including any international image effects? How can the costs be minimized and the benefits maximized for host cities and countries? How do these mega events impact the challenges of globalization and what is their environmental legacy?
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Chapter 22: Labor Market Effects of the World Cup: A Sectoral Analysis

Robert Baumann, Bryan Engelhardt and Victor A. Matheson


Robert Baumann, Bryan Engelhardt and Victor A. Matheson 1 INTRODUCTION Every four years the eyes of the world’s sports fans turn to the Fédération International de Football Associations (FIFA) World Cup. In the run-up to the 2010 World Cup, 205 national and regional teams competed in qualifying tournaments for the right to be one of the final 32 countries invited to the World Cup finals held in South Africa. Soccer’s World Cup is far and away the world’s largest sporting event featuring a single sport, and only the Summer Olympic Games can rival the World Cup in terms of scale and popularity. For example, the 2006 World Cup recorded an estimated 26 billion combined viewers over the course of the 64 games of the tournament and the final alone drew an estimated 715 million viewers. By comparison, the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing attracted ‘only’ 600 million viewers, while the 2011 Super Bowl, the annual championship of American football, drew a record 111 million American viewers, the highest ever for an American television broadcast, but few additional non-American viewers, leaving the game far behind the World Cup final’s global audience (Telegraph, 2011). The World Cup is an overwhelming financial success for FIFA itself, which funds over 85 percent of its operations from this quadrennial event. Between 2007 and 2010, FIFA generated $4.189 billion in revenue with $3.655 billion of the total coming directly from sources related to the 2010 World Cup (Australian Broadcasting Corporation,...

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