Show Less

Handbook of Stress in the Occupations

Edited by Janice Langan-Fox and Cary Cooper

The Handbook of Stress in the Occupations sets a new agenda for stress research and gives fresh impetus to scholars who wish to focus on issues and problems associated with specific jobs, some of which have received little attention in the past.
Buy Book in Print
Show Summary Details
You do not have access to this content

Chapter 20: Music Performance Anxiety and Occupational Stress Among Classical Musicians

Michiko Yoshie, Eriko Kanazawa, Kazutoshi Kudo, Kimitaka Nakazawa and Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki


Michiko Yoshie, Eriko Kanazawa, Kazutoshi Kudo, Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki and Kimitaka Nakazawa ACTUAL CONDITIONS OF STRESS AND ANXIETY IN CLASSICAL MUSICIANS Review of Previous Literature Music performance anxiety (MPA) is defined as ‘the experience of persisting, distressful apprehension about and/or actual impairment of, performance skills in a public context, to a degree unwarranted given the individual’s musical aptitude, training, and level of preparation’ (Salmon, 1990, p. 3). Similar to anxiety in general (Lang, 1978), MPA manifests itself at the subjective, physiological and behavioural levels. At the subjective level musicians would experience anxiety, tension, apprehension, dread or panic, and cognitive problems such as loss of concentration, memory failure and misreading of the musical score (Brotons, 1994; Steptoe, 2001). The physiological symptoms include increased heart rate, sweating, inhibition of salivation, the release of hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol, and gastrointestinal disturbances (Brotons, 1994; Craske & Craig, 1984; Fredrikson & Gunnarsson, 1992; Steptoe, 2001; Wesner et al., 1990). One could also observe the behavioural changes in a performing musician such as knees/ hands trembling, arm and neck stiffness, shoulder lifting, difficulty in maintaining posture and moving naturally, and failures of technique (Brotons, 1994; Steptoe, 2001). Research has shown that MPA is a serious and frequent problem for musicians at various ages and skill levels. Understandably, amateur musicians (Yoshie & Shigemasu, 2007) and music students (Kaspersen & Gotestam, 2002; Wesner et al., 1990) have been shown to be afflicted by MPA. Several surveys have demonstrated the high incidence of MPA even among professional musicians. In a large survey...

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.

Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.

Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

Further information

or login to access all content.