Evolving Concepts and Processes
- European Research in Entrepreneurship series
Edited by Odd Jarl Borch, Alain Fayolle, Paula Kyrö and Elisabet Ljunggren
Chapter 3: Meta Processes of Entrepreneurial and Enterprising Learning: The Dialogue between Cognitive, Conative and Affective Constructs
Paula Kyrö, Jaana Seikkula-Leino and Jarkko Mylläri INTRODUCTION The question of how to learn entrepreneurial and enterprising behaviour has recently become one of the core questions in entrepreneurship education (for example Acs and Audretsch, 2003; Fayolle and Klandt, 2006; Kyrö and Carrier, 2005). According to Bosman et al. (2000) in this field the individual, competency-based approach is fast becoming the most common type of structure for training programmes and courses. It digresses from what entrepreneurs are, towards what they do, and hence towards the competencies they need in order to play their roles. Chandler and Jansen (1992), for example, found that to perform well, the entrepreneurial competencies were the most fundamental. Managerial and technical-functional competencies only become useful when the entrepreneurial competency has been activated. Recently this discussion has also introduced new elements to the conceptual development of competences by integrating the concept of competence to the learning processes (for example Cope, 2005; Hayton and Kelley, 2006). This approach argues that competencies should not be viewed as inputs, outputs or processes but as a context-dependent process of learning. However, adopting such a holistic perspective still leaves many essential concepts such as values, beliefs, motives, volition, ability, skill and knowledge undefined. To contribute to this stream of research this chapter adopts the tripartite constructs of the personality and intelligence originally introduced by Snow et al. (1996) and further applied to entrepreneurship education by Koiranen and Ruohotie (2001). This construct helps to differentiate the cognitive, conative and affective aspects of learning...
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