User-based Innovation in Services
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User-based Innovation in Services

Edited by Jon Sundbo and Marja Toivonen

This book demonstrates pioneering work on user-based service innovation using an analytical framework. This approach involves understanding the needs of users, the service firms collaborating with them, and recognising the fact that users are innovators and, as such, services develop while in use. As well as presenting case studies, the book discusses theoretically what user-based innovation means in the context of services. Three main fields are analysed: user-based innovation in knowledge-intensive business service, user-based innovation in public services, and models and methods for structuring user-based innovation.
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Chapter 2: Bricolage as a Way to Make Use of Input from Users

Lars Fuglsang


Lars Fuglsang This chapter draws on Levi-Strauss’ concept of ‘bricolage’ to explain how user-based service innovation can take place by small steps (LéviStrauss, 1966; see also Hatton, 1989; Garud and Karnoe, 2003; Baker and Nelson, 2005; Campbell, 1997; Campbell, 2002; Duymedjian and Ruling, 2010). The chapter first explains the concept of bricolage and how it can be applied to understanding innovation as incremental, stepwise, processes. It then uses the concept of bricolage to explain three cases in which companies have tried to make use of inputs from users in the companies’ development of new goods and services. Finally, it tries to develop the concept of bricolage by discussing how bricolage (compared to a more scientific or systematic approach) can be both a limitation on firm growth and a very concrete and efficient way to make use of limited and heterogeneous resources. 1 BACKGROUND Development and innovation are central to many organizations. However, innovation is not a very precise concept. It covers many types of activities, including R&D, improvements on the shop floor or changes made in the user encounter. The concept of innovation is also used to describe four separate activities: creativity, development, distribution/dissemination and the implementation of new inventions and ideas. The term becomes even more complicated when it is extended by introducing concepts like user-driven innovation, lead user innovation, employee-driven innovation, service innovation, public innovation and so on. Innovation can be defined as making practical use of creative ideas in a commercial and/or social context. This...

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