Chapter 1: The emergence of strategic partnerships
Innovation and Development
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The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide an important context, crystallizing the numerous persistent challenges throughout the world, and the magnitude of work to be done. The eight challenges outlined in the MDGs capture pressing circumstances that require extensive cooperation and coordination of resources wherever they are situated. The MDGs were born out of the UN Millennium Declaration, adopted by the leaders of 189 nations in September 2000 at the Millennium Summit held at the UN Headquarters in New York. Presented as a blueprint for development in the twenty-first century, the MDGs commit the international community to a set of eight goals to be achieved by the year 2015. Together, the MDGs form a coherent framework for the entire UN system to collaborate toward shared, common goals. These eight goals are: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger: Between 1990 and 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people living on or below the international poverty line (adjusted to $1.25 in 2008 by the World Bank); achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people; and halve the proportion of people suffering from hunger. Progress: Between 1990 and 2005, overall poverty rates in developing regions fell from 46 percent to 27 percent, with progress being sustained in many developing countries. However, an estimated 64 million people have been pushed into extreme poverty as a result of the 2008 economic crisis. Moreover, rapid growth in East Asia, especially China, figures greatly in the reduction of global poverty.

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