Edited by Cathy Macharis and Sandra Melo
Chapter 10: The Use of Rail Transport as Part of the Supply Chain in an Urban Logistics Context
Jochen Maes and Thierry Vanelslander INTRODUCTION In Western Europe, the rail freight industry has been liberalized during recent years. The number of actors multiplies, the network connections of railroad and intermodal logistics companies grow, and new actors enter the market. European rail freight has been liberalized mainly on the initiative of the European Commission by Directive 91/440. This directive called for separated accounting structures between network provider and operational activities. The right to operate first international and later national freight trains came afterwards. However, different market structures were implemented as national member states of the European Union were responsible for the implementation of the new legal framework. As a result, some countries had anticipated the liberalization; others delayed as long as possible. The liberalization had a major impact on the former state-owned monopolistic rail companies (the incumbents) and logistics actors using them. New market possibilities arose, but more actors now need to collaborate. This chapter explores new logistics concepts involving rail transport in Western Europe now in the trial – or investigation – phase (Lewis et al., 2002; Maes et al., 2008). This chapter will deal with the use of rail transport as part of the supply chain in an urban logistics context. The link will be made between two research subjects: the economic and ecological viability of rail or intermodal transport, and the logistics capacity problems in an urban context, the latter of which is a growing research stream. A part of this chapter will build on research conducted, among others,...
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