Chapter 8: Environmental education variation in China
Environmental education (EE), climate change education (CCE) and education for sustainable development (ESD) have a history of just a few decades in China, shorter than in the West where these forms developed. The trajectory of development in China also differed from the West. It began from the top and worked its way into colleges/universities and then the K-12 school system over time. In addition, informal, non-governmental forces as well as the media have been more important relatively than in the West. China’s national K-12 educational system is often regarded as uniform, both because of the history in centralization of education from the dynastic era to the present and because of the ideological control of the Chinese Communist Party over all operations of the state since 1949. Nevertheless, numerous scholars have pointed to the powerful decentralizing forces since China’s opening to the West and onset of a marketizing economy in the late 1970s. The question for this chapter is whether the strong forces of decentralization, accompanied by the immense variations of regions and peoples across China, have had an impact on the implementation of environmental education. The chapter begins by exploring sources of variation in policy implementation, and then considers differences of educational opportunity, with discussion of rural and urban differences in teaching staff, finance of basic education, facilities, students and other factors. The penultimate section of the chapter is based both on the secondary literature and author McBeath’s field work outside Beijing.
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.