Chapter 10: Environmental education differences in greater China
An educated population is a prerequisite for a functioning modern industrial society, and education on the environment is especially necessary for states hoping to mitigate and adapt to environmental change and crises. Environmental education (EE, and education for sustainable development, ESD) broadly has three objectives: (1) growth in awareness of issues and problems concerning the environment; (2) increased knowledge about the environment; and (3) changes in attitudes and behaviors. EE and ESD have both formal and non-formal components. The formal elements of environmental education are the responsibility of a nation’s K-12 school system, colleges and universities, and teacher training programs. Non-formal elements in democratic nations rely on the private or non-profit sectors primarily, and include environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the media. In authoritarian polities such as China, the state actively monitors NGOs and either owns or heavily censors the press. Finally, governments educate the public on environmental issues and problems in both democratic and authoritarian nations. In this chapter, we concentrate on EE and ESD in Taiwan, because this small, politically beleaguered nation-state industrialized earlier than China, and reaction to industrialization’s environmentally degrading effects prompted establishment of many environmental programs and organizations. They were in place for several years while environmental issues were just under consideration and programs were being developed in mainland China. We make a small number of observations and comparisons regarding Hong Kong, which in 1997 returned to China’s fold (but remains a special administrative region (SAR) today, in 2014).
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.