- New Horizons in Management series
Edited by Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou and Cary L. Cooper
Chapter 2: Socioeconomic adversity and family stressors in relation to school achievement among Greek, Serbian and Albanian students
Alexander-Stamatios Antoniou, Marina Dalla, Ledi Kashahu, Dhori Karaj, George Michailidis and Evi Georgiadi
Poverty is one of the biggest social problems of the 21st century. In the United States, 12.1 per cent of all people live in conditions of poverty or near poverty (Rank, 2005) and the majority of the nation will experience poverty at least once. In the EU in 2006, there were 72 million people at risk of falling into poverty, one in five people living in substandard housing and 10 per cent living in households wherein all members were unemployed (Commission of the European Communities, 2007). The countries with the highest levels of human poverty in the EU are Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece and Malta (Bubbico and Dijkstra, 2011). In the United Kingdom, the proportion of individuals living in poverty increased from 15 per cent in 1981 to 22 per cent in 2002 to 2003, representing 12.4 million people (Paxton and Dixon, 2004). According to the Child Poverty Act (HM Government, 2011), 22 per cent of children were living in relative poverty in 2008/2009 and 17 per cent of children were living in low income households with material deprivation in 2008–09. In the majority of the EU countries children are at greater risk of poverty than the total population (20 per cent versus 17 per cent) (Eurostat, 2010). Child poverty in Greece is larger than in the EU (Matsaganis, 2010).
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