Chapter 12: Development
INTRODUCTION Modern industrial processes are wide and varied and, if legal but poorly planned, they may have a detrimental impact upon biodiversity and protected areas. When they are illegal, by their very nature, they are likely to be unregulated and damaging. The emphasis of this chapter is upon the more notable forms of modern industrial processes such as traffic and traffic routes (on both land and sea), wind turbines, noise pollution, agriculture, large dams, mineral and/or hydrocarbon exploration and/or exploitation, and tourism. All of these issues have been a subject of concern for many international regimes. In large part, this focus surrounds what may, or may not, be done in protected areas. Outside of the confines of international conventions, most countries are often reluctant to issue policy advice on what forms of development, in general, are desirable or not and prefer to deal with each issue in an ad hoc manner. 2. MODERN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES General industrial developments have been a concern for all of the major international regimes governing protected areas. Sports complexes in Italy1 and France,2 golf courses in Ireland,3 housing projects in the United Kingdom,4 and infrastructure projects in France5 have all been criticized by the Parties to the Berne Convention for threatening the integrity of important protected areas. The Parties to the Ramsar Convention have followed a similar path, warning of general developments putting internationally significant wetlands at risk in, inter alia, Iceland,6 Ireland,7 the United Kingdom,8 Germany,9 and...
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