Edited by Philip Cooke, Mario Davide Parrilli and José Luis Curbelo
Chapter 7: New Focus of Economic Reactivation in Spain: Creative Industries in the Basque Country
* Luciana Lazzeretti and Mario Davide Parrilli 1. INTRODUCTION After 30 years of focus on industrial districts and clusters as centres of economic and social development, the attention of academics is currently more and more polarized by cultural economics, including the recognition of the dynamic role of the creative economy (OECD, 2007; UNCTAD, 2008), with its ‘creative cities’ (Landry, 2000) and ‘creative industries’ (Caves, 2000; DCMS, 2009) offshoots. The analysis of business models and networks of creativity (Belussi and Staber, 2011) spurs the academic debate in the area of creativity management (Richards et al., 2009), and underscores the importance of the creative process, the implementation of ideas, and the new product development. Related contributions increased significantly as the topic of creativity has become one of the most crucial for innovation economists as well as for scholars in regional economics, economic geography and local development. The main strands of the literature can be synthesized in two main interpretations: the first revolves around the consideration of culture and creativity as a means to generate ideas and innovations, rather independently from their impact on economic development (Power and Scott, 2004); culture and creativity are regarded as resources for innovation that can activate new and different value chains and filières.1 Culture has thus become a ‘creative capacity’ that can rejuvenate products, sectors, professions and places (Lazzeretti, 2009). The second interpretation fits within the most typical cultural district perspective, which regards culture and creativity as relevant assets for economic development (Santagata, 2002; Scott, 2005). In...
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