Edited by Yaojun Li
Chapter 21: Social capital in ethnic enclaves: Indians in Lloret de Mar and Pakistanis in Barcelona
José Luis Molina, Hugo Valenzuela-García, Alejandro García-Macías, Miranda Lubbers and Judith Pampalona
The authors, when introducing themselves at international meetings, normally get this kind of remark: ‘. . . from Barcelona? Ah! I visited the city some time ago. I would like to visit it again.’ And often they note that the city centre has preserved its culture very well. These visitors are usually unaware that things have changed in the latter respect. If the returning visitors walk down the Ramblas, from Catalonia Square to the harbour, turning to any street on their right will take them to a bazaar-like landscape of mobile phone shops and halal butcheries mostly run by Pakistanis, which give commercial life to the urban transformation of this part of the city centre that was triggered by the Olympic Games in 1992 (Marshall, 2000). If visitors want to travel around looking for sunny beaches and fun, then visiting Lloret de Mar on the Costa Brava will give them the impression that there is a significant number of people from India in Catalonia. This is because they run virtually all the local souvenir shops. But in fact they just represent a tiny 0.5 per cent of the foreign population settled in Spain. Migration in Spain is a relatively new phenomenon. After the Olympic Games the proportion of immigrants in Spain was 1.5 per cent, while in 2011 the proportion was 14 per cent, including European Union residents (National Institute of Statistics, INE, 2012).
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