Power, Legitimacy and Performance
Edited by B. Guy Peters, Patrick von Maravić and Eckhard Schröter
Chapter 7: Migration and urban governance: challenges for democratic legitimacy?
Over the last years, the governance of cities has attracted considerable attention, primarily in the context of globalization and a competitiveness agenda (Begg, 2002). As part of that, implicitly, cities have largely been viewed as more or less black boxes, competing with each other, and defining policies as complete entities. Yet globalization and internationalization and, in a European context, “EU-ization”, have not just provided a stage for this competitiveness agenda, but have created an underlying dynamism for many cities through migration, be that intranational (rural urban migration or suburbanization) or international – within the EU or across continents. In Western Europe, rapid post-war economic development resulted in labor shortages attracting considerable numbers of workers from less developed countries within Europe and beyond. The subsequent changes in the composition of the population have been particularly evident in the old industrial and manufacturing centers, such as the Ruhr region in Germany, or the West Midlands and Yorkshire, in England. Much of this legacy, reinforced by the recent, albeit different “waves” of immigration, raised the topic of integration and multi-culturalism, and the search for “best” policy answers, as a major political agenda at national and European level (Miles and Thränhardt, 1995), Implicitly, this placed public policy in the driving seat of this debate, shaped and implemented by governments as part of a liberal democratic agenda.
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