Regulatory Responses and Crime Prevention Across the Taiwan Strait
Chapter 2: Risk, routine activity and cybercrime
The origin of the Internet can be traced back to 1968 with the establishment of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) by the USA Government. In response to the 1957 Soviet launch of Sputnik, the world’s first man-made satellite, the ARPA was founded under the auspices of the USA Department of Defense to initiate a network of computer infrastructures (the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, ARPANET) for use by the military. This became commonly known as the ‘Internet’. Some researchers have claimed that ARPANET was designed as a computerized version of a nuclear bomb shelter. However, Charles M. Herzfeld, a former director of the ARPA, claimed that ARPANET was not created as a result of any specific military need. Rather, the main goal of ARPANET was to find a successful way of linking universities, defence contractors, and military command centres to foster research and to aid interaction (Emeagwali, 1999; Leiner et al., 2003; Trinkle and Merriman, 2000). In the early 1970s, ARPANET grew from four hosts1 located on four USA university campuses into 23 hosts connecting universities and government research centres around the USA. By the mid-1970s, State-run networks were being constructed in a number of countries, including Canada, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. In addition to the national networks, efforts to establish a multinational
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