The Equality Challenge
Edited by Sonia Morano-Foadi and Micaela Malena
This chapter reviews the evolution of European Union policies on integration and considers its potentialities and limitations. The Amsterdam Treaty and the Tampere agenda not only initiated the development of common European policies on migration and asylum, but also gave rise to the development of integration policies at the European level. While the Tampere agenda stressed equal opportunities and equality as key aspects of third-country nationals’ integration, subsequent EU policy and legislation emphasised migrants’ obligations. The chapter argues that the interplay between EU integration goals and migration policy severely affects the chances for third-country nationals to gain inclusion in the host community through the acquisition of a secure legal status and a strong sense of belonging. Based on the latest developments, the chapter analyses three distinct emerging models of integration: (1) rights-based inclusion, (2) integration involving both obligations and rights (conceived as allowances: octroyées, rather than entitlements) focusing on cultural assimilation, notably through an emphasis on acquiring language proficiencies and embracing European basic values, and (3) integration of third-country nationals as a multidimensional process, involving immigrants, receiving societies and countries of origin, with a view to enhancing equal treatment and a proper level of rights.
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