Handbook on Transport and Development
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Handbook on Transport and Development

Edited by Robin Hickman, Moshe Givoni, David Bonilla and David Banister

This Handbook provides an extensive overview of the relationships between transport and development. With 45 chapters from leading international authors, the book is organised in three main parts: urban structure and travel; transport and spatial impacts; and wider dimensions in transport and development. The chapters each present commentary on key issues within these themes, presenting the debate on the impacts of urban structure on travel, the impacts of transport investment on development, and social and cultural change on travel. A multitude of angles are considered – leaving the reader with a comprehensive and critical understanding of the field.
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Chapter 11: The role of attitudes in accounting for self-selection effects

Bert van Wee and Patricia Mokhtarian


The combined transport and land-use system allows people to travel between activity locations (home, work, family and friends, sports and other recreational locations, etc.). And it allows companies to transport goods in their several stages of production and distribution between related locations. But transport comes at high costs. First, transport costs time and money. In most Western countries people spend 10–15 percent of their income on transport (Schafer and Victor, 2000). On average, and at the aggregate level (e.g., all persons in one country), people travel between 60 and 75 minutes per person per day, in almost all countries worldwide (Mokhtarian and Chen, 2004; Zahavi and Talvitie, 1980; Szalai, 1972). Second, the transport system causes negative impacts on society. Impacts include travel time losses to other users in case of congestion, safety impacts, and environmental impacts. Even for a small country like the Netherlands the costs of congestion, safety and the environment are as large as 14.8–25.3 billion euros (KiM, 2009), around 1.9–3.3 percent of GDP. In the United States the cost of congestion alone in 2010 was estimated to exceed $100 billion (Schrank et al., 2011). Third, transport infrastructure is expensive. Large infrastructure projects often costs billions of euros, and budgets of Ministries of Transport constitute a large share of government budgets in many EU member states and elsewhere.

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