Handbook on Transport and Development
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Handbook on Transport and Development

Edited by Robin Hickman, Moshe Givoni, David Bonilla and David Banister

This Handbook provides an extensive overview of the relationships between transport and development. With 45 chapters from leading international authors, the book is organised in three main parts: urban structure and travel; transport and spatial impacts; and wider dimensions in transport and development. The chapters each present commentary on key issues within these themes, presenting the debate on the impacts of urban structure on travel, the impacts of transport investment on development, and social and cultural change on travel. A multitude of angles are considered – leaving the reader with a comprehensive and critical understanding of the field.
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Chapter 39: Troublesome leisure travel: counterproductive sustainable transport policies

Erling Holden and Kristin Linnerud


The level and growth of passenger transportation – or travel – represents a major challenge to environmentally sustainable development (EEA, 2002; OECD, 2000, 2002). Among a number of environmental consequences, climate change, air pollution and excess energy consumption are the most important. In developed countries, leisure travel constitutes a major and growing share of total travel. In the EU, for example, leisure travel accounts for approximately one-third of all trips (EEA, 2008). A survey of travel in Norway (Denstadli et al., 2006) suggests that leisure trips are responsible for more than half of total CO2 emissions from travel because leisure trips tend to be longer and use more energy-consuming modes of transportation than everyday trips. Banister et al. (2000) projected that over the next 20 years, more people will spend more time on leisure activities because of an ageing population in OECD countries. Much of this increased leisure travel could involve long-distance air travel because more people have the means, time and desire to see the world (Gossling, 2010). Meanwhile, research on sustainable passenger transport has mainly focused on everyday travel. Among the driving forces for everyday travel are globalization, lifestyles and individual travel preferences, demographic trends, household structure, economic growth and household income, urban sprawl, and specialization in education and labour (Banister, 2005; Banister et al., 2000; Tengstrom, 1999; Black, 2003; Geenhuizen et al., 2002; Salomon and Mokhtarian, 2002).

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