Achieving Environmental Sustainability through Fiscal Policy
Edited by Larry Kreiser, Julsuchada Sirisom, Hope Ashiabor and Janet E. Milne
Chapter 8: Approaching Environmental Fee to Plastic Bag Waste Management in Ho Chi Minh City Supermarkets
Le Nguyen Thuy Trang and Nguyen Thi Hai Yen INTRODUCTION Since the 1960s, plastics have permeated virtually every aspect of daily life, paving the way for new inventions, and replacing materials in existing products. The success of these materials has been based on their properties of resilience, resistance to moisture, chemicals and biodegradation, their stability, and the fact that they can be moulded into any desired form (Lardinois and van de Klundert 1995). In Germany, plastics account for 5% of the 30 million tons of domestic waste collected each year, and about 75% of this waste consists of packaging materials (Halbekath 1989). At Metro Manila in the Philippines, in 1982, plastics accounted for 7.5% of the weight of solid waste generated (film plastics 5.9%, hard plastics 1.6%). By 1990, this proportion had increased to 12.4% (film plastics 11.5%, hard plastics 0.9%) (CAPS 1992). Being a non-biodegradable product, plastic waste can stay in the environment for a considerable length of time, causing all sorts of problems (Halbekath, 1989). A plastic bag measuring 30 × 20 cm, after a single use, would litter an area of 0.06 m2 in a year, increasing to 0.12 m2 in two years, and litter marine biodiversity of 3.5 g/year (ExcelPlas et al. 2004). The management of plastic waste through combustion is not environmentally friendly and sustainable as this releases carbon dioxide, a major contributor to global warming. Landfilling with plastic waste causes land and water pollution that impacts on wildlife, human health, livelihood, and so on (Ellis...
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