Achieving Environmental Sustainability through Fiscal Policy
- Critical Issues in Environmental Taxation series
Edited by Larry Kreiser, Julsuchada Sirisom, Hope Ashiabor and Janet E. Milne
Chapter 13: The CDM and the Built Environment
Javier de Cendra de Larragán 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF TACKLING ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN THE BUILDING SECTOR Buildings worldwide account for 40 per cent of global energy consumption and resulting emissions, significantly more than the transport sector. At the same time, energy consumption and consequent emission are set to increase rapidly and dramatically, mainly in developing countries, due to population growth and increasing energy usage per person as a result of rising standards of living. Just to get an idea about the scale of the challenge, a few figures can be provided, as follows. China is expected to add twice the amount of current US office space between 2000 and 2020. Also in China, 73 per cent of the population will live in cities, compared with 45 per cent now. Both China and India are developing new ways to manage the huge demand for new residential buildings. In China, 1 km2 land parcels are being provided by cities with arterial streets in place. Developers build everything needed inside each one of those parcels, each holding 2000 to 10 000 housing units. Between 10 and 15 of these superblocks were being completed every day in 2008, adding 10 to 12 million new housing units per year. In India, new combined housing and office developments are being built in large land parcels on the outskirts of major cities. Some 400 township projects, with populations of 0.5 million each, are predicted over the next five years in 30 to 35 cities. Most of...
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