- Elgar original reference
Edited by Susan Vinnicombe, Ronald J. Burke, Stacy Blake-Beard and Lynda L. Moore
Chapter 22: Factors supporting women’s career advancement: differences between male and female CEOs in the United States
Since the Department of Labor issued its ‘Glass Ceiling’ report (US Department of Labor, 1991) the question regarding why women have not attained senior positions in large US corporations lingers. Women have successfully entered what were once male-dominated professions such as law and medicine; however, they continue to face difficulties in obtaining top positions in business organizations. Catalyst (2012) reported that as of 1 January 2012, only 18 women were heads of Fortune 500 companies and 35 in total were chief executive officers (CEOs) of Fortune 1000 companies. This represented slightly more than 0.5 percent change since 2008 (Catalyst, 2009). Some research suggests that societal expectations, stereotyping, lack of experience, organizational culture and family needs create obstacles for women to succeed in attaining top positions (Crampton and Mishra, 1999; Reinhold, 2005; Wrigley, 2002). Other studies suggest that certain factors are needed to facilitate women’s career advancement, including the existence of mentors, cultivating networks, overseas assignments, general management/line experience and critical and visible assignments (Crampton and Mishra, 1999; La Pierre and Zimmerman, 2012; Marlow etal., 1995; Ragins et al., 1999).
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.