An Environmental Approach
Edited by Francesc Morata and Israel Solorio Sandoval
Chapter 10: Domestically Driven, Differentiated EU Rule Adoption: The Case of Energy Sector Reform in Turkey
Luigi Carafa1 10.1 INTRODUCTION The question of how EU ideas, rules and institutions travel abroad has engendered various academic debates based on analytical concepts such as ‘normative power Europe’, external governance, idea diffusion and external Europeanization.2 Within these debates, increasing attention is being devoted to energy in more recent years (Lavenex and Stulberg, 2007; Dimitrova and Dragneva, 2009; Escribano, 2010; Carafa, 2011; also Chapter 7 by Dobbins and Tosun; Chapter 8 by Herranz Surrallés and Natorski; Chapter 9 by Ciambra; Chapter 11 by Escribano-Francés and San Martín Gonzáles). Energy offers a remarkable internal variation in rule systems and therefore constitutes a fertile field for researching the expansion of EU governance beyond EU borders (that is the ‘green-energy’ model exporter). In the early 1990s energy re-emerged as a global problem requiring supranational coordination but the landscape was rather complex at that time: there was no legal basis for energy in the Treaties and EU member states were opposed to any major developments in this field. In response to this the Commission forged a specific modus operandi to lock energy issues into three overlapping policy areas falling under its legislative competence: the single market, the environment, and external relations (Matláry, 1997; Solorio Sandoval, forthcoming; see also Chapter 1 by Solorio Sandoval and Morata). While a fragmented body of energy legislation was being created over one and a half decades, the Commission projected internal energy activities onto its relations with candidate and non-candidate countries in the Mediterranean region,...
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