Edited by Joseph Mark S. Munoz
Chapter 11: Impact of the geopolitical distribution of corruption and crime on the global corporation
This chapter surveys impact of geopolitical distribution of corruption and crime on the global corporation. The topic is relatively under-studied to date. “Geopolitical” means the combination of geographic and political factors relating to or influencing a nation or region of countries (Le Billon, 2004). The term focuses on the relationship between political institutions and territory characteristics. Corruption and crime occur globally, but the geopolitical distribution is very uneven; and corruption and crime distributions may not closely coincide especially within countries. Data tend to be fragmented across the major dimensions of corruption and crime. A global corporation is a privately owned enterprise operating in multiple countries and at least two regions of the world, so for example in Europe and Africa, or Asia and Latin America, or Europe and North America. The business entity might or might not have publicly traded shares. The definition excludes state-owned enterprises, which when operating globally may face much the same geopolitical distribution of corruption and crime but bear a different relationship to a specific home country government. The classic instance is a corporation operating in a large number of countries across a variety of regions: Apple, British American Tobacco, Coca-Cola, Exxon Mobil, Google, Microsoft, Royal Dutch Shell, Siemens, Unilever, and Wal-Mart are well-known examples. Many enterprises have a much more regional focus.
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