- Elgar original reference
Edited by Kerry Thomas and Janet Chan
Chapter 6: Marxism and creativity
In his early writings, Karl Marx focused upon the alienation of work under exploitative conditions. His critique of capitalism was essentially humanistic in that creativity was said to be at the very least frustrated by the contemporary labour process. Marx’s thinking in this respect inspired a flourishing of humanist, libertarian and existentialist Marxism in the West that detached itself from orthodox Marxism-Leninism in the East during the mid-twentieth century (Fromm, 1967  and 2011 [1961 and 1966]; Anderson, 1976). Departure from orthodoxy was much stimulated by belated publication during the 1930s of most notably the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts that were written in his native German whilst exiled in Paris during 1844 when Marx was only twenty-six years old; and later translations, particularly into French and English (Marx, 1977).
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