A Socio-Economic Perspective on EU Integration
- Science, Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship series
Edited by Elias G. Carayannis and George M. Korres
Chapter 4: The European national and regional systems of innovation
Innovation has been recognized as a major source of competitiveness of firms and regions. It is recognized as highly relevant to economic performance and sustainability and thus it has been gaining increased support and attention. Public policies in new technologies aim exactly to reinforce technological capabilities in order to enhance productivity, competitiveness and economic growth. Public support is usually given in the form of ‘direct and indirect measures’, namely grants, loans, tax concessions and equity capital. Regional differences remain the prime source of competitive advantage. A long-term approach to development of regional knowledge economies must therefore combine local (regional) bottom–up approaches with global or European top–down approaches. This chapter attempts to examine the structure and role of national and regional systems of innovation and their implications for sustainable development and integration and convergence in the EU.
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