The Innovation Union in Europe
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The Innovation Union in Europe

A Socio-Economic Perspective on EU Integration

  • Science, Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship series

Edited by Elias G. Carayannis and George M. Korres

One of the most important economic events in recent decades has been the ongoing process of European integration. This book provides a basic yet rigorous understanding of the current issues and problems of economic integration and innovation in Europe, and argues that national or regional economic development depends mainly on technical change, social and human capital, and knowledge creation and diffusion. This is clearly evident in the role of the quadruple innovation helix of government, university, industry and civil society.
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Chapter 4: The European national and regional systems of innovation

George M. Korres

Extract

Innovation has been recognized as a major source of competitiveness of firms and regions. It is recognized as highly relevant to economic performance and sustainability and thus it has been gaining increased support and attention. Public policies in new technologies aim exactly to reinforce technological capabilities in order to enhance productivity, competitiveness and economic growth. Public support is usually given in the form of ‘direct and indirect measures’, namely grants, loans, tax concessions and equity capital. Regional differences remain the prime source of competitive advantage. A long-term approach to development of regional knowledge economies must therefore combine local (regional) bottom–up approaches with global or European top–down approaches. This chapter attempts to examine the structure and role of national and regional systems of innovation and their implications for sustainable development and integration and convergence in the EU.

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