Management, Marketing, Innovation and Internationalisation
Edited by John R. Bryson and Peter W. Daniels
Chapter 19: Creative systems: a new integrated approach to understanding the complexity of cultural and creative industries in Eastern and Western countries
The cultural and creative industries (CCIs) are now recognised as a major economic force in post-Fordist societies. First identified by Western countries as a motor of economic recovery in the 1980s (Bianchini and Parkinson, 1993) and then of economic growth in the 1990s (Department for Media, Culture and Sport, 1998, 2000; Cunningham, 2002), they have since increasingly been the focus of local and national policies in both developed and developing countries (UNDP/UNCTAD, 2010). The transfer of concepts (e.g. creative industries or creative city) and policy (e.g. cluster) from the West to the East is perhaps problematic, as there is still an important debate on the way these industries develop economically and spatially in different places in the West (Chapain and Lee, 2009; Musterd and Murie, 2009; Leriche and Daviet, 2010; Chapain et al., 2013). On the one hand, this debate is fuelled by the inclusion in CCIs of economic activities with very different value chains and degrees of public funding in the areas of heritage (traditional cultural expressions and cultural sites), arts (performing arts and visual arts), media (publishing and printed media and audio-visual businesses) and functional creation (design, new media and creative services, creative research and development, digital and other related creative services) (UNDP/UNCTAD, 2010).
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