Environmental Governance and Sustainability
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Environmental Governance and Sustainability

Edited by Paul Martin, Li Zhiping, Qin Tianbao, Anel Du Plessis, Yves Le Bouthillier and Angela Williams

This timely volume provides fascinating insights into emerging developments in the field of legal governance of the environment at a time when environmental governance is increasingly concerned with far more than legal doctrine.
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Chapter 14: Implementing Stewardship in Kenyan Land Use Law: The Case for a Sustainability Extension

Robert Kibugi


Robert Kibugi 14.1 INTRODUCTION Poverty and food insecurity are two serious challenges facing developing countries like Kenya. A large section of the national population, especially in rural areas, earns a livelihood from land-based activities. Credible evidence suggests that engaging in farming or rural agriculture correlates with poverty, which calls into question prior policies focused on agriculture per se for generating rural economic growth, and alleviating poverty and food insecurity. Innovative mechanisms have been introduced to supplement agriculture. One is controlled community agroforestry on degraded state forests, known as the shamba system. Shamba is Swahili for garden or farm. Over time rural agriculture, farm forestry and the shamba system have demonstrated declining productivity and failure related to depletion of soils and poor husbandry, which in turn are related to a lack of relevant knowledge and skills. Passing on relevant knowledge and skills to enhance how farmers use their land to increase productivity and fertility has typically been performed through agricultural and forestry extension.1 Failures in rural land uses have been linked to inadequacies in the extension function. Where extension has been effective, case studies show a positive outcome. This suggests that extension can enhance sustainable land use, if adapted to support stewardship alongside uses like forestry and agriculture. This chapter is an inquiry into how extension can be adapted as a mechanism available for land use, and environmental law to meet their sustainability goals. Section 14.1 is the Introduction. Section 14.2 reviews poverty and environmental degradation in view of the sustainability...

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