Chapter 13: Conclusion
Competition law did not grow organically in Japan but was suddenly implanted. The original economic culture was based on cooperation between public administration and private business, and on the protection and promotion of monopoly. This equilibrium had been in place since the time when Japan opened the country to foreigners ñ and thereby to capitalism ñ in the Meiji era. It was not part of Japanese culture to fight against anticompetitive activities through public enforcement. Thus, the success of Japanese competition policy was not guaranteed but was rather risky and challenging.The gradual and subtle ways in which Japanese antitrust policy has been transformed since the introduction of the AMA is unique; it cannot easily be compared to evolutionary trends seen in other jurisdictions. It is sometimes argued that the regulatory culture in Japan is basically bureaucratic, whereas the AMA presupposes a more legalistic style of enforcement. One reason why the enforcement culture of the JFTC appears to be evolving from bureaucratic to legalistic may be the influence of EU law and procedure. Through a series of reforms in recent years, the procedure governing the application of Japanese competition law has gradually become more adversarial and transparent. Formal decisions rather than oral announcements are now being issued.
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