Chapter 7: Appropriation of Technology in Universities: The Case of Biotechnology Transfer in Vietnam
7. Appropriation of technology in universities: the case of biotechnology transfer in Vietnam Tran Ngoc Ca, Nguyen Phuong Mai, Tran Thi Phuong and Le Van Chuong BIOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM AND THE ROLE OF THE UNIVERSITY SYSTEM The development of biotechnology in Vietnam officially started when the government issued Resolution 18/CP (dated 11 March 1994), directed at Vietnamese biotechnology development up until 2010. Following this, biotechnology is considered an essential component in achieving national goals with regard to food, feed and fibre production, health care and environmental protection. In practice, biotechnology development in Vietnam has focused more on the agricultural and forestry sectors. Research activities are concentrated mainly at government institutes and are heavily dependent on funding from the government. Despite the early start, due to many cumbersome barriers and shortcomings in management, it is not until recently that biotechnology development has taken off. Internationally, Vietnam is lagging behind in biotechnology by many decades. Given the modest investments in biotechnology in the past 20 years, only about USD7.5 million in total (MOST, 2003), the early start did not produce a dynamic innovation capacity for the biotechnology sector. However, Vietnam managed to produce some modern biotechnology products in selected areas such as vaccines (Ministry of Health, 2003). In general, the sector has several key weaknesses such as: (i) weak capability of R&D organizations and enterprises; (ii) lack of human resources and investments; (iii) shortage of new, modern equipment and facilities and knowledge about international standards and regulations; (iv) imperfect environment...
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