Chapter 8: Biotechnology Transfer and Application in China: Background and Case Study
Wang Haiyan and Zhou Yuan
8. Biotechnology transfer and application in China: background and case study Wang Haiyan and Zhou Yuan INTRODUCTION Biotechnology is of great importance to China’s economic and social progress. The rapidly growing biotechnology industry accelerates industrialization, internationalization and knowledge accumulation. Much attention is attached by policy-makers to the development of modern life sciences, as they believe the application of biotechnology will help China solve some of its most urgent problems, such as population growth, food supply, health care and protection of the environment. Science and education hold the key to a prosperous future of biotechnology. In this chapter, we describe in detail the Chinese research institutions and the human research capacity in biotechnology. Domestic Biotechnology Research Institutions A couple of programmes that prioritize the development of biotechnology have been carried out by the Chinese government since the late 1970s. The programmes cover a wide spectrum such as basic research programmes, hi-tech research and development programmes, key science infrastructure programmes, as well as the establishment of key laboratories and engineering centres. An ambitious scheme to promote biotechnology research was started in the beginning of the ‘Seventh Five-Year Plan’ (1986–1990) when the first comprehensive National Biotechnology Development Policy Outline was issued. Under this outline, a number of high profile technology programmes have been launched from the mid-1980s. Some of the most significant programmes include the ‘863 High-Tech Plan’, the ‘973 Plan’, the Initiative of National Key Laboratories on Biotechnology, Special Foundation for Transgenic Plants Research and Commercialisation 180 M2793 - GORANSSON 978178100...
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