Chapter 9: Biotechnology in Europe: Background Information on Biotechnology Industry Characteristics and Policy Environment in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Russia and Sweden
Thomas Reiss, Ralf Lindner and Ulrich Schmoch INTRODUCTION This overview report aims at providing some general information on the policy environment related to biotechnology and on the biotechnology industry characteristics in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Russia and Sweden. Thereby a common starting point for the five country case studies presented in separate reports will be set. An important requirement for the comparative country analysis is the availability of a common understanding of the field of investigation. In the case of biotechnology such an approach faces a number of specific difficulties which are related to the fact that biotechnology per se is not a business sector covered by standard industry statistics provided, for example, on an international basis by the OECD. Rather, biotechnology is a crosscutting technology which can be applied in a wide range of industrial sectors ranging from pharmaceuticals through to mining. Therefore, the statistical challenge is not only to identify business and public activities which can be considered as core biotechnology, but also to identify those business activities in the various application sectors that to some extent use biotechnology. More than five years ago the OECD developed a definition of biotechnology based on the work of a large group of experts in biotechnology and in survey design. The resulting definition is a compromise between the need for a workable definition of biotechnology that is suited to survey 207 M2793 - GORANSSON 978178100 1387 PRINT.indd 207 21/11/2011 10:29 208 Biotechnology and innovation systems BOX 9.1 LIST-BASED DEFINITION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY...
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