Edited by Hamid Etemad
Chapter 17: Reflections and conclusions
This chapter, simply entitled “Reflections and Conclusions”, aims to offer some reflective insights based in part on the lessons of the McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference Series (the fifteenth McGill International Conference took place in 2012), and also on the chapters of this volume. Individually and collectively, the content of the chapters strongly portrays international entrepreneurship as a field increasingly resembling a dynamic open complex adaptive system, or DOCAS for short (Etemad 2004a). In an open and dynamic system, many concerned agents act in self-interest (and at times habitually) to exert influence on the system (usually through a subsystem open to such influences or at a proximate point) in order to mitigate against what they perceive as the threat of oncoming influences with potentially adverse impacts. We define the concerned agents as those who feel certain degrees of dependency, or interdependencies, on the broader system and which may be categorized as: (1) those who are related to, or dependent on, and thus impacted explicitly by the system and find it necessary to interact with the system to minimize the adverse effects; and (2) those who are perceived to be under the implicit (or potential) influences attributed to the system. We also include those who are not, or who are remotely, dependent on the system but are in a position to take opportunistic action to impact the course of the system’s evolution in order to benefit from it.
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