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EU Intellectual Property Law and Policy Second Edition

Catherine Seville

Intellectual property remains not just economically significant, but also of daily importance to most businesses and individuals. The digital age brings many opportunities, but also presents continuing challenges to IP law, and the EU’s programme of harmonisation unfolds in this context. Taking account of numerous changes, the second edition of this accessible book offers a fully updated account of the law as it affects all the major rights, free movement and competition matters, and enforcement. It sets the substantive law in its policy context, and discusses potential reforms to this major area of EU law.
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Index

Catherine Seville

abuse of dominant position

collecting societies 467–8

exhaustion of rights 453

IPR and competition conflicts 457–8

prohibitions

within internal market 483–4

pharmaceutical products 495–501

refusal to supply or license on reasonable terms 484–93

standard essential patents 493–5

advertising

comparative or misleading

definition 368–9

harmonisation 367–71

parallel imports 402–4

trade marks, use of another's in 436–40

aircraft, design right exclusions 252

animals

geographical indications 387

patent exclusions

biological resources 165–71, 201, 204–6

Onco-mouse 165–6, 176–7, 182–3

supplementary protection certificates (SPCs) 193–9

active ingredients 194–9

infringement vs. disclosure test 196–7

product, definition 196–8

term 199

anti-competitive practices

assignments 459–60

block exemptions 462–3, 477–83

co-promotion agreements 477

collecting societies 467–71

dual pricing 472–6

licensing agreements 460–67

passing off 217, 339, 342, 372, 377, 504

pharmaceutical industry 472–83

reverse-payment patent settlements 476–7

technology transfer block exemptions 462–3, 477–83

unilateral action 472

appellations of origin 340, 377–9

artists

resale rights 89–91

assignment

anti-competitive practices 459–60

Community Trade Mark 374–5

design proprietor's rights 247–8

domain names 373–4

audiovisual performances

Beijing Treaty 20–22

free transferability 20–21

Australia 155, 157, 210, 264–5, 380, 382

authors

joint authorship 45

resale rights 89–91

Belgium 8, 10, 44

Berne Convention

background 9–10

challenges 15

databases 47–8

exclusive rights 11

independence of protection 10–11

moral rights 11–12, 15

national treatment 9–10

resale rights 88

term of protection 12, 16, 18, 44–5

three step test 11, 16, 20, 30, 38, 49

biological diversity

Convention 114–15, 118–23, 202–3

definition 118

biological resources

access and benefit-sharing 120–22

patents 1, 104, 118–23

discoveries vs. inventions 154–7

DNA/human biological material 155–7, 178–83, 201, 204

exclusions 109–10

geographical origins 115, 201

germ line therapy 182, 204

human cloning 180–81, 204

human embryos and stem cells 179–82, 204

isolated biological material 155–7, 202–3

morality exclusions 175–83, 201–4

Onco-mouse 165–6, 176–7, 182–3

plants and animals 165–71, 201, 204–6

biopiracy 114–15

Biosafety Clearing-House 120–21

Biotechnology

Cartagena Protocol 120

Directive 102, 200–207

CBD and TRIPS, interaction with 202–3

compulsory licensing 206

exclusions 201–6

farm saved seed 205–6

human cloning 204

human embryos and stem cells 204

morality exclusions 201–4

plants and animals 167–9, 204–6

reporting requirements 207

block exemptions 462–3, 477–83

bootlegging 13–14, 19–20

border measures 512–13

Customs Action Plan 507–8

destruction of goods 514–15

exclusions 514

Regulation 513–15

small consignments procedures 515

brands

trade marks, compared 259–60

Brazil 116, 445

broadcasting

copyright

1984 Green Paper 39

cable retransmission 40–42

digital technology 42–3

licensing 39, 464–7

rental rights 37–8, 40

Rome Convention 13–14

Satellite and Cable Directive 39–43

TRIPS Agreement 16

WIPO Treaties 15

Brussels Regulation 515–19

business identifier trade marks 339–42

business methods patents 161–2

Canada 380

car spare parts, design protection 4

Certificates of Complementary Protection 193

China 380, 507

cinematographic works see films

civil law systems 7, 23

civil proceedings

enforcement of IPR 503–4

jurisdiction, Brussels Regulation 515–19

cloning 180–81, 204

collecting societies 467–71

collective management organisations (CMOs) 93–6

collective rights management

competition conflicts 468–71

conflicts 95–6

Directive 93–7

European Licensing Passport 93–5

exhaustion of rights 421–2

freedom to provide services 96

multi-territorial licensing 95

purpose 93–5

colours, as trade marks 276–7, 285

common law systems 7, 23

common origin doctrine 413–17

Community Plant Variety Right 211–16

effects of 215–16

procedures 212–13

validity criteria 213–15

Community Trade Mark

applications 269–73

assignment 374–5

background 268–9

cancellation 342–53

absolute grounds 343–5

bad faith 342–5

generic marks 351–2

invalidity 342–6

misleading marks 352–3

non-use 346–51

relative grounds 346

revocation 346–53

classification of goods and services 270, 376

defences

descriptive uses 363–4

exhaustion of right 366–7

national law to prevent use of Community Trade Mark 366

use of own name and address 362–3

use to indicate intended purpose 364–6

Directive 268–9

examinations 271

free movement 416

geographical indications 295–6, 340–41

harmonisation

comparative or misleading advertising 367–71, 376

domain names 372–4

unfair commercial practices 371–2

infringement 353–5, 361–2

guarantee of origin function 358–61

use in course of trade 356–8

intention to use mark 271

invalidity, grounds for 312

languages 269–70

licensing 374–5

objects of property 374–5

Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM) 262, 269

opposition proceedings 272–3

overview 268–9

publication 272

purpose 268–9, 361–2, 416

reform proposals 375–7

refusal, absolute grounds 271, 281–312, 376

acquired distinctiveness 297–300

bad faith 312

customary and generic marks 296–7

deceptive marks 310–11

descriptive marks 291–6

geographical names 295–6

non-distinctiveness 271, 279, 282–90

non-verbal marks 299–300

public interest 287–8

public policy and morality 308–10

shape exclusions 300–307

special emblems prohibited by law 311–12

refusal, relative grounds 271, 312–42, 376

business identifiers and earlier rights 339–42

detriment to earlier mark 331–3

detriment to reputation of earlier mark 333–4

geographical indications 340–41

global appreciation 315–16

identical goods and services 314–15

identical trade marks 313–15

likelihood of confusion 314–27

marks with a reputation 327–31

similar goods and services 315–16, 323–4

similar trade marks 315–23

unfair advantage of earlier mark 334–9

registrable marks 3, 273–81

capable of distinguishing 279, 282–90

colours 276–7, 285

compound marks 283–4

decorative elements 283

descriptive marks 291–6

geographical names 295–6

graphic representation 274–9, 287

letters and numbers 284

names 288–9

positional marks 288

service marks 280–81

shapes 279, 284–8, 300–307

signs 273–4

slogans 289–90

smells and tastes 275–6

sounds 273, 275, 277–8

registration criteria 273–81

renaming 376

renewal 268

searches 271–2

service marks 280–81

term of protection 268

transactions involving 374–5

comparative advertising see advertising

competition

abuse of dominant position

collecting societies 467–8

exhaustion of rights 453

within internal market 483–4

IPR conflicts 457–8

pharmaceutical products 495–501

refusal to supply or license on reasonable terms 484–93

standard essential patents 493–5

anti-competitive practices

assignments 459–60

block exemptions 462–3, 477–83

co-promotion agreements 477

collecting societies 467–71

dual pricing 472–6

licensing agreements 460–67

pharmaceutical industry 472–83

reverse-payment patent settlements 476–7

technology transfer block exemptions 462–3, 477–83

unilateral action 472

copyright licensing practices 463–7

IPR, conflicts between

exhaustion of rights 453

existence vs. exercise of rights 407–8, 458

pharmaceutical products cases 398–404, 406–7

reasons for 457–9

parallel imports 398–404, 425–6

repackaging/relabelling 398–402

artificial market partitioning 426–7

competition conflicts 398–402

condition of product, impacts on 427

damage to reputation 428

necessity 430–34

pharmaceutical products 398–402, 424–36

prior notice 428–9

responsibility indications 427–8

Trade Marks Directive 425–32

see also free movement

computer programs

copyright

adequate protection measures 18–19

anti-tampering remedies 19

decompilation 30

Directive 27–33

EU Green Paper 1988 25–6

exceptions 29–30

exhaustion of rights 30–32, 420

resale rights 31–3

secondary infringement 29

WIPO Treaties 18

international exhaustion of rights 454

patents 152, 157–65

European Patent Convention 129

confidence, breach of 217, 236, 248

trade secrets (proposed Directive) 519

Convention on Biological Diversity 118–23

access and benefit-sharing 120–22

advance informed agreements 120

background 118–19

Cartagena Protocol 120

criticism of 122–3

Nagoya Protocol 120–22

purpose 118–19

TRIPS Agreement, interaction with 114–15

copyright and related rights 6–8

access to published works by the visually impaired 22–3

broadcasting

1984 Green Paper 39

cable retransmission 40–42

digital technology 42–3

licensing 39, 464–7

rental rights 37–8, 40

Rome Convention 13–14

Satellite and Cable Directive 39–43

TRIPS Agreement 16

WIPO Treaties 15

civil vs. common law system approaches 7, 23

communication to public 62, 64–70, 77–8

competition law 97–8

licensing challenges 463–7

computer programs

adequate protection measures 18–19

anti-tampering remedies 19

decompilation 30

Directive 27–33

exceptions 29–30

exhaustion of rights 30–32

policy development 25–6

resale rights 31–3

secondary infringement 29

WIPO Treaties 18

databases

Berne Convention 47–8

controversies 50–51

Directive 47–57

information monopolies 50–51

information re-utilisation 55–6

intellectual creation criteria 49

substantial investment criteria 48–9, 52–5

sui generis right 49–57

TRIPS Agreement 16–17

Digital Agenda 17–19, 98–9

Digital Single Market 2, 5, 43, 98–101

digital technology 6, 8, 17–19

E-Commerce Directive 57–61

distribution rights 18

Information Society Directive 62, 70–74

EU regime

1988 Green Paper 24–7, 61–2

1991 Green Paper 26

1996 Green Paper 61–2

2008 Green Paper 97–8

Collective Rights Management Directive 93–7

community copyright proposal 99–100

Database Directive 25, 47–57

E-Commerce Directive 57–61

future reforms 26–7, 97–101

Information Society Directive 26, 28, 38, 61–87, 97–8, 100

knowledge economy policy 97–8

Orphan Works Directive 92–3

Rental Directive 33–9, 71

Resale Right Directive 87–92

Satellite and Cable Directive 39–43

Software Directive 25–33

Term Directive 26, 43–7

exhaustion of rights

consent, concept of 418–23

distributions rights, beyond 418–19

rental and lending rights 419–20

expression-ideas dichotomy 15–16

films 19

exhaustion of rights 420–21

follow-on creativity 5

free movement 96

specific subject matter 409–11

harmonisation

challenges 4–5, 77–9

disabled access 22–3, 98

progress 97–8

historical development 4, 7–8

international conventions 8

Beijing Treaty 20–22

Berne Convention 9–12, 16, 18, 44–5

early bilateral agreements 8–9

Marrakesh Treaty 22–3

Rome Convention 13–15, 44

TRIPS Agreement 15–17

Universal Copyright Convention 12–13

WIPO Copyright Treaty 17–19

WIPO Performance and Phonograms Treaty 19–20

joint authorship 45

levies 81–4

licensing

challenges 463–7

collecting societies 468–71

competitive practices 463–71

moral rights 11–12, 20

orphan works 26, 92–3, 98

parodies 84–5

performers and performances

audiovisual rights 20–22

Beijing Treaty 20–22

exhaustion of rights 420–22

fixation 21

moral rights 20

Rental Directive 37–8

Term Directive 45–6

term of protection 21

unfixed performances, rights of 21, 37–8

waiver of rights presumption 35

WIPO Treaties 19–20

phonograms

Rental Directive 38

Rome Convention 13–14

Term Directive 45–6

TRIPS Agreement 16

WIPO Treaties 18–20

photographs 18

resale rights 89–91

Term Directive 44–5

purpose 404–5, 409–10

rental and lending rights 17–18, 40

Directive 33–9

exhaustion 419–20

reproduction right 62–3, 77–8

resale rights 87–8

Berne Convention 88

Directive 88–92

rights management information 85–7

sound recordings 20

specific subject matter 409–10

technological measures protection 85–7

term of protection 7, 405

Berne Convention 12, 16

Rome Convention 13–15

TRIPS Agreement 16

Universal Copyright Convention 12–13

WIPO Treaties 18, 20

three step test 11, 16, 20, 30, 38, 49

unpublished works, publication right 46–7

counterfeit goods

anti-counterfeiting trade agreement 1

Border Measures Directive 441, 445–6

Customs Action Plan 507–8

customs enforcement role 376, 441

destruction 514–15

EU policy development 506–8

free movement, and 402–4, 441–2

removal of trade marks from 504

Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU)

criticism of 2

exhaustion of rights doctrine 2

trade marks interpretation 3

criminal proceedings 503–4

Customs Action Plan (EU) 507–8

cyber-jurisdiction 372

damages 504, 511–12

data protection 510–11

databases

copyright

Berne Convention 47–8

controversies 50–51

Directive 47–57

information monopolies 50–51

information re-utilisation 55–6

intellectual creation criteria 49

substantial investment criteria 48–9, 52–5

sui generis right 49–57

TRIPS Agreement 16–17

definition 48–9

international exhaustion of rights 454

design law

challenges 4, 217–18

see also industrial designs

design proprietor's rights see under industrial designs

design rights see industrial designs

designations of origin

definition 384

EU regime 383–5

conflicting rights 392–3

exclusions 385–7

optional quality terms 396–7

registration 387–90

scope 390–92

traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG) 394–6

free movement

specific subject matter 411–13

purpose 405

designs see industrial designs

diagnostic treatment processes

patentability 172–85

Digital Agenda 17–19, 98–9

Digital Millennium Copyright Act 58

Digital Single Market 2, 5, 43, 98–101, 464

digital technology

copyright

broadcasting retransmission 42–3

geoblocking 43

harmonisation challenges 4

diligence

orphan works 92

disabled persons

beneficiary persons, definition 22

blind/visually impaired, access to published works 22–3

reproduction rights 78

discoveries vs. inventions 154–7

discrimination

copyright 46–7

designs 231

free movement 419, 458, 521

non-discrimination principle 85, 109, 161–2

DNA

patentability 156–7, 178–83, 201, 204

domain names

assignment 373–4

harmonisation 372–4

droit d'auteur 7, 23

droit de suite see resale rights

droits voisins 7

duration see term of protection

e-commerce

caching 58–9, 76

Directive 57–61

hosting 59

ISSP liability exemptions 58–61

mere conduit provisions 58

safe harbor provisions 58

emblems, as trade marks 311–12

employees

patent entitlement 130

enforcement of IPR

civil proceedings 503–4

compensatory damages 504, 511–12

criminal proceedings 503–4

EU regime 505–8

2008 Green Paper 506–7

Border Measures 513–15

Brussels Regulation 515–19

disclosure requirements 510–11

Enforcement Directive 508–12

jurisdiction 515–19

policy development 505–7

Trade Secrets Directive (proposed) 519

ex parte actions 503–4

general principles 503–4

provisional measures 503

remedies 503–4, 511–12

TRIPS Agreement 502–4

essential facilities doctrine 486

European Charter of Fundamental Rights 2

European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies (EGE) 202

European Licensing Passport 93–5

European Patent Court 185–6

European Patent Litigation Agreement (EPLA) (draft) 185–6

European Patent Office

appeals 136

applications

disclosure, sufficiency of 183

examination and re-examination 133–5

opposition proceedings 135–6

priority 131–2

procedures 130–35

searches 107–8

biological materials 133

claims

categories 132–3

interpretation 137–9

doctrine of equivalents 138–9

excluded subject matter 151–83

animal biological material 165–6, 201

computer programs 152, 157–65

criticisms of 152–4

discoveries vs. inventions 154–7

DNA/human biological material 155–7, 178–83

medical/diagnostic treatment processes 172–85

microbiological processes 171

morality 175–83

plant biological subject matter 167–71, 201

fees 131

fence-post vs. sign-post approaches 137–9

harmonisation 136–7

London Agreement 184–5

jurisdiction 130–31

languages 129, 131

patentability criteria 139–83

‘any hardware' approach 153–4, 162–4

business methods 161–2

computer programs 152, 157–65

discoveries vs. inventions 154–7

excluded subject matter 151–83

industrial application 150–51

information available to the public 140–41, 147–8

inventive step 146–50, 162–3

new purpose 142–5

non-obviousness 146–50

novelty 139–45, 162–3

objective technical problem 148–9

‘person skilled in the art' criteria 146–7

prior art 141–2, 147–9

problem and solution approach 146, 148–9

product-by-process patents 132–3

secret use 142

selection patents 145

Swiss-style medical uses claims 143–4

technical contribution approach 153–4, 157–8, 160, 163–4

reforms 126–7, 129–30

searches 107–8, 133–4

Europeana project 98

evergreening 498–9

exhaustion of rights 2

abuse of dominant position 453

consent, concept of 413–23

copyright 418–23

patents 417–18

trade marks 413–17, 425

goods in transit 441–6

industrial designs 252

Information Society Directive 72–4

international exhaustion 454

benefits 446

burden of proof 451–3

competition law, and 453

free trade agreements 446–7

trade marks, judicial interpretation 446–53

policy development 454–7

videogames 73

expression-ideas dichotomy 15–16

films

copyright 19, 46, 419–21

definition 46

exhaustion of rights 420–21

orphan works 92

rental and lending rights 419–20

reproduction right 63

trade marks 340

waiver of rights, presumption 35

flags, as trade marks 311–12

folklore 19

see also traditional knowledge

framing 67–9

France

Certificates of Complementary Protection 193

copyright 8, 10, 88, 94

designs 248, 253

geographical indications 377

patents 125, 127, 184–5, 188, 192–3

trade marks 259, 272

free movement

Border Measures Directive 441, 445–6

copyright

exhaustion of rights 418–23

free movement of services 422–3

specific subject matter 409–11

counterfeit goods 402–4, 441–2

designations and indications of origin

specific subject matter 411–13

exhaustion of rights

consent, concept of 413–23

copyright 418–23

patents 417–18

trade marks 413–17, 425

goods in transit 441–6

historical development

existence vs. exercise of rights 407–8, 458

industrial designs

specific subject matter 411

IPR conflicts with 2, 398–404

legal framework 406–7

non-discrimination 419, 421, 458

patents

exhaustion of rights 417–18

specific subject matter 408–9

proportionality 406, 434

repackaging/relabelling

artificial market partitioning 426–7

damage to trade mark reputation 428

IPR vs. free movement conflicts 398–402, 424–36

necessity 430–34

original condition, impacts on 427

other products, rules application to 434–6

pharmaceutical products 398–402, 424–34

prior notice 428–9

responsibility for, indicating 427–8

trade marks

artificial market partitioning 426–7

challenges of 398–404

exhaustion of rights 413–18, 425

parallel imports 398–404

repackaging/relabelling 398–402, 423–36

specific subject matter 409

free trade agreements 446–7

freedom of expression

parodies 84–5

trade marks 260–61

freedom to provide services

collective rights management 96

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 25–6

genetic resources

biosafety 120–21

cloning 180–81, 204

DNA 156–7, 178–83, 201, 204

patents 118–23, 156–7, 178–83

stem cell research 179–82, 204

geoblocking 43

geographical indications

definitions 385

designation of origin 384

domain names 373–4

EU regime 383–5

conflicting rights 392–3

criticism 382–3

exclusions 385–7

inherent natural factors 384

natural or legal persons 395

optional quality terms 396–7

plant or animal names 387

proposal 380–81

Quality Schemes Regulation 383–4, 392–3

registration 387–90

Regulations 381–3

scope 382–3, 390–92

trade marks 295–6, 340–41, 387

traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG) 394–6

exclusions

generic names 385–6

homonymous names 387

plant or animal names 387

trade marks 387

free movement

specific subject matter 411–13

historical development 377

International Conventions

bilateral agreements 381

Lisbon Agreement 378

Madrid Agreement 378

Paris Convention 377–8

TRIPS Agreement 379–81

overview 377

purpose 405

registration 387–90

eligibility 387

procedure 389–90

product specification 388–9

geographical names

trade marks 387

refusal, absolute grounds 295–6

refusal, relative grounds 340–41

registrable marks 295–6

geographical origins

biological resources, patents 106–17, 201

germ line therapy 182, 204

Germany 44

computer programs 160

copyright 8, 10, 26, 47, 418–19

designs 253

patents 125, 137, 184–5, 192–3

trade marks 259, 272, 308

globalisation 1, 6

goods in transit 441–6, 514

Greece 185, 386

Green Papers

1984: broadcasting 37, 39–40

1988: copyright and technology 24–7, 61–2

1991: copyright 26

1991: industrial designs 218–19

1995: utility models 207

1996: copyright in information society 61–2

1999: community patents 131

1999: counterfeiting and piracy 505

2008: agricultural product quality 382–3

2008: copyright in knowledge economy 97–8

2008: enforcement of IPR 506–7

2011: digital single market 99

Greenpeace 177, 179, 181

harmonisation

advertising 367–71, 376

challenges 4–6

copyright 4–5, 77–9

patents 105–6, 136–7

Community Trade Mark

advertising, comparative or misleading 367–71, 376

domain names 372–4

unfair commercial practices 371–2

conflicts and criticisms 2–4

copyright

challenges 4–5, 77–9

disabled access 22–3, 98

progress 97–8

digital technology 4

domain names 372–4

E-Commerce Directive 57

industrial designs 218–21

Information Society Directive 77–9

judicial interpretation 2

London Agreement 184–5

patents 5–6, 136–7, 184–5

challenges 105–6, 125–7

computer-implemented inventions 5

EPC reforms 129–30

potential benefits 125–6

progress 123–6

unitary Community patents 1, 5

policy development 1, 6

trade marks

comparative or misleading advertising 367–71, 376

domain names 372–4

Madrid Agreement 264

Paris Convention 262

unfair commercial practices 371–2

unitary Community trade marks 3–4

trends 1

Hong Kong 380

human cloning 180–81, 204

human embryo research 179–82, 204

Human Genome Project 183

hyperlinking 2, 67–70

ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Number and Names) 372–3

ideas-expression dichotomy 15–16

India 116, 445

industrial designs

aircraft and ships 252

definition 217–18, 226, 232

complex product 227–8

product 226–7

design proprietor's rights 246–57

assignment and licensing 247–8

basic entitlement 246–7

exceptions and defences 251–7

rights conferred 248–51

scope of protection 249–51

term of protection 247–8

EU regime

1991 Green Paper 218–19

Community Designs Regulation 220–21

Designs Directive 219

harmonisation 218–21

exclusions 228–31

aircraft and ships 252

complex products 252–3

exhaustion of rights 252

experimental purposes 252

inter-connected designs 230–31

prior use 256–7

private/non-commercial purposes 251–2

public policy or morality 231

reproduction for citations or teaching 252

technical function limitations 228–30

exhaustion of rights 252, 454

international protection

Paris Convention 218

invalidity

absolute grounds 232–42

breach of confidentiality 236

complex products special requirements 240–42

distinctive design 244–5

earlier copyrighted works 245

identical designs 235–8

individual character 236–40, 249–51

informed user test 237–42, 249–50

lack of entitlement 243

novelty 233–6

prior design 243–4

protected badges 245–6

relative grounds 242–6

jurisdiction and parallel proceedings 257–8

Registered Community Designs 220–21

advantages 221–2

applications 222, 224

classification 222

design proprietor's rights 246–57

examination 225

exclusions 228–31

inter-connected designs 230–31

invalidity grounds 232–46

morality exclusions 231

priority 224

publication 225–6

representations 223–4

technical function limitations 228–30

term of protection 225, 247–8

rights, purpose 405

specific subject matter 411

term of protection 225, 247–8, 405

Unregistered Community Designs 220, 236

Information Society Directive 61–2, 97–8, 100

communication to public 62, 64–70, 77–8

disabled persons, information access 78, 98

distribution right 62, 70–74

exclusions 74–85

fair compensation 77–84

grandfather clause 78

lawful use 75

levies 81–4

optional exceptions 77–9

parodies 84–5

private copying 77–84

reproduction right 62–3

rights management information 85–7

technological measures protection 85–7

temporary copies within technological process 74–7

information society service (ISS) 58

information society service providers (ISSP) 58–9

infringement of IPR

Customs Action Plan 507–8

remedies 504, 511–12

see also counterfeit goods; enforcement of IPR

injunctions 503, 511–12, 518

Innovation Union 2

International Literary Association 9

internet

copyright

geoblocking 43

hyperlinking and framing 67–70

internet broadcasting 42–3

ISSP exemptions 58–61

signal piracy 15

cyber-jurisdiction 372

domain names

assignment 373–4

harmonisation 372–4

service providers

E-Commerce Directive 57–8

inventors

employees, patent entitlement 130

Ireland 88

Italy

Certificates of Complementary Protection 193

copyright 10

patents 193

Japan 6, 116, 124–5, 364

patents 125, 187, 193

judicial review 503

jurisdiction

Brussels Regulation 515–19

co-defendants 517

Community Design Regulations 257–8

cyber-jurisdiction 372

difficulties 516–17

exceptions 516–17

pending actions 518–19

tortious harm 516

Korea 108, 116

lending rights see rental and lending rights

less developed countries

attitudes of 6

pharmaceutical patent licensing 111–13

letters, as trade marks 284

levies 81–4

licensing

block exemptions 462–3, 477–83

collecting societies 468–71

competition, and 460–71

copyright 460–71

European Licensing Passport 93–5

industrial design rights 247

know-how 479

multi-territorial licensing 95

patents 462–3, 477–83

pharmaceutical products 111–13

refusal on reasonable terms 484–93

Liechtenstein 88, 185

Lisbon Agreement 378

living modified organisms 120

Locarno Agreement 222, 224

London Agreement 184–5

Luxembourg 185, 200

Madrid Agreement 378

medical treatment processes

patentability 172–85

micro-organisms

patentability 113–14, 171

misleading advertising see advertising

Monaco 185

moral rights

Berne Convention 11–12, 15

patents 104, 109, 114

performers 20

rights of attribution and integrity 11, 21

morality

design registration exclusions 231

patent exclusions 175–83, 201–4

DNA/human biological material 155–7, 178–83, 201–2

euthanasia compositions 177–8

germ line therapy 182, 204

human cloning 180–81, 204

human embryos and stem cells 179–82, 204

isolated biological material 155–7, 202–3

Onco-mouse 176–7, 182–3

multimedia works 49

names, as trade marks 288–9

national treatment

Berne Convention 9–10

Rome Convention 13

natural resources

sovereign rights 119–20

Netherlands

biotechnological inventions 200

copyright 8, 44

patents 185, 193

New Zealand 116, 380

non-discrimination principle 85, 109, 161–2, 458

novelty

industrial designs 233–6

patents 139–45, 162–3

numbers, as trade marks 284

Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM) 262, 269, 376

optional quality terms 396–7, 405

orphan works 92–3, 98

parallel imports 398–404, 425–6

competition law breaches 457–8

exhaustion of rights, burden of proof 451–3

pharmaceutical products 472–5

Paris Congress 9

Paris Convention 1883

geographical indications 377–8

industrial designs 218

patents 106–7

trade marks 262–3, 311–12

Paris Union 106–7

parodies 84–5

passing off 217, 339, 342, 372, 377, 504

patents and related rights

biological resources 1, 104, 109–10, 115, 118–23

access and benefit-sharing 120–22

Biotechnology Directive 102, 200–207

discoveries vs. inventions 154–7, 201

DNA/human biological material 155–7, 178–83, 201, 204

exclusions 109–10

geographical indications 106–17, 115, 201

germ line therapy 182, 204

human cloning 180–81, 204

human embryos and stem cells 179–82, 204

morality exclusions 175–83, 201–4

Onco-mouse 165–6, 176–7, 182–3

plants and animals 165–71, 201

Certificates of Complementary Protection 193

competition law

technology transfer block exemptions 462–3, 477–83

EU regime

Biotechnology Directive 102, 200–207

Community Patents 110, 186–9

European Patent Convention (EPC) 102, 127–35

European Patent Litigation Agreement (EPLA) (draft) 185–6

London Agreement 184–5

Unified Patent Court 192–3

Unitary Patents 189–93

utility models 207–8

European Patent Convention 127–35

2000 reforms 128–30

applications procedures 130–35

background 127–8

computer programs 129

excluded subject matter 128–9

jurisdiction 130–31

languages for applications 129, 131

principles 127–8

European Patent Office see European Patent Office

excluded subject matter 104, 109–10, 151–83

animal biological material 165–6, 201

computer programs 152, 157–65

criticisms of 152–4

discoveries vs. inventions 154–7

DNA/human biological material 155–7, 178–83, 201, 204

EPC 128–9

medical/diagnostic treatment processes 172–85

microbiological processes 171

morality 175–83

national treatment or most favoured nation status 110

pharmaceuticals 111–13

plant and animal inventions 109–10, 113–18

plant biological subject matter 167–71, 201

TRIPS Agreement 109–18, 201–2

exhaustion of rights

consent, concept of 417–18

free movement 408–9

harmonisation 5–6

challenges 105–6, 125–7

computer-implemented inventions 5

EPC reforms 129–30

potential benefits 125–6

progress 123–6

unitary Community patents 1, 5

international Conventions

Convention on Biological Diversity 114–15, 118–23

Group B+ 125

Paris Convention 106–7

Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) 102, 107–9, 117–18

Patent Law Treaty (PLT) 123–7

Tegernsee Process 125–6

TRIPS Agreement 102, 109–18, 126, 161–2, 201–2

International Searching Authorities 107–9

languages

EPC applications 129, 131

London Agreement 184–5

PCT applications 108

Unitary Patents 190–91

licensing

block exemptions 462–3, 477–83

pharmaceutical products 111–13

moral rights 104, 109, 114

pharmaceutical products 102

compulsory licensing 111–13

TRIPS Agreement 111–13

plant varieties see plant varieties

protection

challenges 105–6

contents 104–5, 108, 123

description 104–5

disclosure requirements 104, 108, 110, 117–18

first application 104–5, 195

overview 103–5

processes, of 110

right of priority 106–7

routes 105–6

search procedures 107–8

term of 103, 110, 268, 404

Unified Patent Court 102

unitary Community patents 1

purpose 102–4, 404, 408–9

specific subject matter 408–9

supplementary protection certificates (SPCs) 193–9

term of protection 103, 110, 268, 404

traditional knowledge 114–19, 117

Unitary Patents 189–93

elements 189–90

languages 190–91

legal characteristics 191

Unified Patent Court 192–3

performances

audiovisual 20–22

Beijing Treaty 20–22

exhaustion of rights 420–22

fixation 21

Rental Directive 37–8

Term Directive 45–6

term of protection 21

unfixed, rights of 21, 37–8

waiver of rights, presumption 35

performers

moral rights 20

Rental Directive 37–8

Rome Convention 13–14

Term Directive 45

unfixed performances, rights regarding 21, 37–8

WIPO Treaties 19–20

pharmaceutical products

abuse of dominant position 495–501

competition

block exemptions 477–83

co-promotion agreements 477

dual pricing 472–6

evergreening 498–9

generic products 476–7

parallel imports 472–5

reverse-payment patent settlements 476–7

technology transfer block exemptions 477–83

unilateral action 472

patent licensing 111–13

repackaging/relabelling

artificial market partitioning 426–7

damage to trade mark reputation 428

IPR vs. free movement conflicts 398–402, 424–36

necessity 430–34

original condition, impacts on 427

other products, rules application to 434–6

prior notice 428–9

responsibility for, indicating 427–8

TRIPS Agreement 111–13

phonograms

copyright

Rental Directive 38

Rome Convention 13–14

Term Directive 45–6

TRIPS Agreement 16

WIPO Treaties 18–20

definition 19

photographs

copyright

WIPO Treaties 18

resale rights 89–91

Term Directive 44–5

plant varieties

definition 167–8, 206

international exhaustion of rights 454

patentability 167–8

essentially biological 169–71

protection 102, 167, 170–71

Biotechnology Directive 167–9, 205–6

Community Plant Variety Right 211–16

development 208–9

term of 213

UPOV Convention 209–11

plants

Biotechnology Directive 167–9, 204–6

geographical indications 387

patent exclusions 165–71, 201

microbiological processes 171

Nagoya Protocol 120–22

plant varieties 167, 205–6

TRIPS Agreement 109–10, 113–18

supplementary protection certificates (SPCs) 193–9

active ingredients 194–9

infringement vs. disclosure test 196–7

product, definition 196–8

term 199

Portugal 185

positional marks 288

precautionary approach 120

proportionality principle 406, 434

Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) see designations of origin

Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) see geographical indications

quality schemes 383–4, 392–3

optional quality terms 396–7, 405

Registered Community Designs 220–21

advantages 221–2

applications 222, 224

classification 222

design proprietor's rights 246–57

examination 225

exclusions 228–31

inter-connected designs 230–31

invalidity grounds 232–46

morality exclusions 231

priority 224

publication 225–6

representations 223–4

technical function limitations 228–30

term of protection 225, 247–8

rental and lending rights

copyright 17–18

1984 Green Paper 37

Directive 33–9

equitable remuneration 35

public lending right 37–8

pursuit of trade 33–4

transfer presumption 35–6

exhaustion 419–20

films 419–20

international exhaustion of rights 454

repackaging/relabelling

artificial market partitioning 426–7

competition conflicts 398–402

condition of product, impacts on 427

damage to reputation 428

necessity 430–34

prior notice 428–9

responsibility indications 427–8

Trade Marks Directive 425–32

reproduction rights

disabled persons 78

fair compensation 77–84

Information Society Directive

fair compensation 77–84

levies 81–4

reputation

repackaging/relabelling, impacts of 428

trade marks to detriment of 333–4

trade marks with 327–31

resale rights

Berne Convention 88

Directive 88–92

historical development 87–8

justification 85–6

royalties calculation 90

royalties payments 90–91

term 91

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 120

Rome Congress 9

Rome Convention 1961 13–15, 44

exceptions 14–15

national treatment 13

royalties, calculation 90

Russia 8

‘safe harbor’ provisions 58

Satellite and Cable Directive 39–43

second-hand goods

trade marks, use in advertising 439

semiconductor chips 227, 445, 480, 507–8, 514

service marks 280–81

shapes, as trade marks 279, 284–8, 300–307

shared cultural heritage 5

ships, design right exclusions 252

signs, as trade marks 273–4

Single Market for Creative Content Online 98–9

slogans, as trade marks 289–90

smells, as trade marks 275–6

software see computer programs

sound recordings

copyright

Rental Directive 38

Rome Convention 13–14

Term Directive 45–6

TRIPS Agreement 16

WIPO Treaties 18–20

Term Directive 45

sounds, as trade marks 273, 275, 277–8

Spain 44, 185

spare parts, design protection 4

sporting fixtures lists 51

stem cell research 179–82, 204

‘strait-jacket' effect 479

supplementary protection certificates (SPCs) 193–9

active ingredients 194–9

infringement vs. disclosure test 196–7

product, definition 196–8

term 199

Switzerland 89, 115, 117, 143–4, 185

tastes, as trade marks 275–6

technology transfer block exemptions 462–3, 477–83

telephone directories 50–51

television see broadcasting

television programme listings 410

Television without Frontiers 39–40

Term Directive 43–7

term of protection

Community Trade Mark 268

copyright 405

design proprietor's rights 247–8

industrial designs 225, 247–8, 405

Madrid Agreement/Protocol 264–6

patent term restoration 193

patents 103, 110, 268, 404

performances 21

plant varieties 213

Registered Community Designs 225, 247–8

supplementary protection certificates (SPCs) 199

trade marks 264–6, 268, 404

TRIPS Agreement 16, 110

third country nationals

resale rights 90–91

three step test 11, 16, 20, 30, 38, 49

trade marks and related rights

advertising

brands, compared 259–60

use of another's trade mark in 436–40

applications 269–73

assignment 374–5

branding 259–60

cancellation 342–53

absolute grounds 343–5

bad faith 342–5

generic marks 351–2

invalidity 342–6

misleading marks 352–3

non-use 346–51

relative grounds 346

revocation 346–53

classification of goods and services 270, 376

collective marks 263

competition law

parallel imports 398–404

repackaging/relabelling 398–402

defences

descriptive uses 363–4

exhaustion of right 366–7

use of own name and address 362–3

use to indicate intended purpose 364–6

EU regime

Community Trade Marks see Community Trade Mark

comparative or misleading adverts 367–71

domain names

harmonisation 268–9

Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM) 262, 269

reform proposals 375–7

Trade Marks Directive 268

unfair commercial practices

examinations 271

exhaustion of rights 425

common origin doctrine 413–17

consent, concept of 413–17

free movement 416

challenges of 398–404

exhaustion of rights 413–17

goods in transit 441–6

repackaging/relabelling 398–402

use of another's trade mark in advertising

freedom of expression, and 260–61

geographical indications 295–6, 340–41, 387

harmonisation

comparative or misleading advertising 367–71, 376

domain names 372–4

Madrid Agreement 264

Paris Convention 262

unfair commercial practices 371–2

historical development 259, 261

infringement 353–5, 361–2

guarantee of origin function 358–61

use in course of trade 356–8

intention to use mark 271

International Conventions 261–2

Madrid Agreement 261, 263–4

Madrid Protocol 261, 265–6

Paris Convention 262–3, 311–12

Singapore Treaty 266–7

Trademark Law Treaty 266

TRIPS Agreement 261, 267

WIPO treaties 261–7

introduction 259–61

invalidity, grounds for 312

languages 269–70

Community Trade Mark 269–70

Madrid Protocol 265

licensing 374–5

objects of property 374–5

opposition proceedings 266, 272–3

overview 268–9

priority 262

publication 272

purpose 259–61, 268–9, 361–2, 400, 404, 409, 416, 436–7

reform proposals 375–7

refusal, absolute grounds 271, 281–312, 376

acquired distinctiveness 297–300

bad faith 312

customary and generic marks 296–7

deceptive marks 310–11

descriptive marks 291–6

geographical names 295–6

non-distinctiveness 271, 279, 282–90

non-verbal marks 299–300

public interest 287–8

public policy and morality 308–10

shape exclusions 300–307

special emblems prohibited by law 311–12

refusal, relative grounds 271, 312–42, 376

business identifiers and earlier rights 339–42

detriment to earlier mark 331–3

detriment to reputation of earlier mark 333–4

geographical indications 340–41

global appreciation 315–16

identical goods and services 314–15

identical trade marks 313–15

likelihood of confusion 314–27

marks with a reputation 327–31

similar goods and services 315–16, 323–4

similar trade marks 315–23

unfair advantage of earlier mark 334–9

registrable marks 3, 273–81

capable of distinguishing 279, 282–90

colours 276–7, 285

compound marks 283–4

decorative elements 283

descriptive marks 291–6

geographical names 295–6

graphic representation 274–9, 287

letters and numbers 284

names 288–9

positional marks 288

service marks 280–81

shapes 279, 284–8, 300–307

signs 273–4

slogans 289–90

smells and tastes 275–6

sounds 273, 275, 277–8

registration criteria 273–81

renaming 376

renewal 266–7, 268

repackaging/relabelling 398–402

searches 271–2

second-hand goods 439

service marks 263, 280–81

social costs 260–61

specific subject matter 409

term of protection 268, 404

Community Trade Mark 268

Madrid Agreement/Protocol 264–6

Traditional Specialities Guaranteed (TSGs)

transactions involving 374–5

well-known marks 267

see also Community Trade Mark

trade secrets 6

Directive (proposed) 519

traditional knowledge

patents 114–17

Biological Diversity Convention 118–19

Traditional Specialities Guaranteed (TSGs) 394–6

criteria for protection 395–6

purpose 405

scope of protection 396

Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union

Art. 101 see anti-competitive practices

Art. 102 see abuse of dominant position

TRIPS Agreement

background 108

conflicts 1

copyright 15–17

broadcasters 16

databases 16–17

phonograms 16, 18

enforcement of IPR 502–4

geographical indications 379–81

moral rights exception 15

patents

business methods 161–2

Convention on Biological Diversity, interaction with 114–15

excluded subject matter 109–18, 161–2, 201–2

minimum standards 109–110

morality exclusions 201–4

pharmaceutical products 111–13

role 102, 126

term of protection 110

traditional knowledge 115–17

principles 15

term of protection 16, 110

trade marks 267

TRIPS-Plus measures 126

undisclosed information protections 519

Turkey 185

unfair competition

policy development 24–5

Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 371–2

see also anti-competitive practices

Unified Patent Court 102, 192–3

Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) 372–3

unitary Community patents 1

unitary Community trade marks 3–4

Unitary Patents 189–93

elements 189–90

languages 190–91

legal characteristics 191

Unified Patent Court 192–3

unitary protection schemes 2

United Kingdom

broadcasting 66–7

competition law 422–3, 463–4

copyright 10, 47, 66, 88–9, 91

designs 253

enforcement of IPR 504

freedom to provide services 422–3

geographical indications 393–5

London Agreement 184

Madrid Agreement 264–5

passing off 342

patents 125, 132–3, 138, 153–4, 159–60, 184–5, 192–3

plant varieties 211

rental and lending rights 419

resale rights 87–8, 91

trade marks 259, 264–5, 274, 289, 297–9, 303–5, 309, 342

traditional specialities guaranteed 394–5

Unified Patent Court 193–4

United States of America

audiovisual performances 20–21

biotechnological inventions 179–80, 200

breeder's rights 210

business methods 161

competition law 486

computer-related inventions 161

Convention on Biological Diversity 117, 123

copyright 8, 12–13, 20–21, 46–7, 58

Digital Millennium Copyright Act 58

DNA and human biological material patentability 156, 180

essential facilities doctrine 486

geographical indications 382

influences of 6

Madrid Agreement 264–5

Patent Law Treaty 124–5

patent term restoration 193

patents 105, 125, 152, 156, 161, 179–80

plant variety protection 208, 210

TRIPS Agreement 116, 379–80

Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) 12–13

Unregistered Community Designs 220, 236

UPOV Convention 209–11

utility models 207–8, 507–8, 514

veterinary treatment processes

patentability 172–85

videogames

exhaustion of rights 73

visually impaired persons

access to published works for 22–3

web sites see domain names; internet

WIPO

biological materials or traditional knowledge 115

Copyright Treaty 6, 17–19

patent applications procedures 107

Patent Cooperation Treaty 115

Patent Law Treaty 123–7

Performance and Phonograms Treaty 19–20

works of art

resale rights 89–91

WTO

Cancún Ministerial Conference 116

Doha Declaration 111–14, 379–80

GATT 25–6

see also TRIPS Agreement