Edited by Pauline Deutz, Donald I. Lyons and Jun Bi
Chapter 6: UK–China collaboration for industrial symbiosis: a multi-level approach to policy transfer analysis
Over the last two decades there has been substantial research on both the potential and promotion of industrial symbiosis (IS) as a means to improve the efficiency of resource use. IS comprises the use of under-utilised resources (including by-products, waste and energy streams) as a means of promoting sustainable industrial development (Deutz, 2014). Attracted by IS exemplars such as the network at Kalundborg in Denmark and the UK’s IS facilitation programme, policymakers in numerous countries have attempted to initiate IS activities in a wide range of different economic, social and policy contexts (Lombardi et al., 2012). Whilst the study of IS as a policy initiative is not new (see for example Gibbs and Deutz, 2005; Costa et al., 2010; Laybourn and Lombardi, 2012), this area of research has taken on a new momentum (see Jiao and Boons  for a review). Existing work points to the significance of waste regulations that are at least ‘enabling’ of IS (in the European context: Costa et al., 2010; Salmi et al., 2012). In the Asian context, national government commitment to IS is part of a wide range of environmental initiatives (Mathews, 2012). Other research examines the potential of IS development in a given institutional context (Simboli et al., 2014 in Italy) or evaluates the environmental benefits of IS (Dong et al., 2013). These are rich and detailed case studies, in some cases incorporating international comparison (e.g., Costa et al., 2010), or employing case studies from multiple countries (Dong et al., 2013).
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