Edited by Pauline Deutz, Donald I. Lyons and Jun Bi
Chapter 7: Industrial waste management improvement: a case study of Pennsylvania
Industrial symbiosis (IS), one of the major strategies put forward by industrial ecology for dealing with the perennial issue of waste, argues that industrial production and consumption must close the loop on materials and products in a manner that mimics the material efficiency of natural ecosystems. By substituting virgin material inputs with wastes and by-products, extraction is minimised, waste is minimised, material use is maximised, while also reducing energy use (Frosch and Gallopoulos, 1989). IS practices, particularly eco-industrial parks (EIPs) (planned or organically formed) and various forms of non-‘ park’-based IS have demonstrated considerable success across the world at a variety of spatial scales from the facilitated programmes of the UK (i.e., NISP) to the more top-down approaches adopted in China (Shi et al., 2012; Tian et al., 2014). Scrap materials also move over large geographic areas (Lyons, 2007; Lyons et al., 2009), mainly driven by differential regulations between countries and regions, imbalances of supply and demand, and the existence of declining transport and transaction costs (Lyons et al., 2009; Chen et al., 2012; Zhuang et al., 2012).
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