Handbook of Manufacturing Industries in the World Economy
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Handbook of Manufacturing Industries in the World Economy

Edited by John R. Bryson, Jennifer Clark and Vida Vanchan

This interdisciplinary volume provides a critical and multi-disciplinary review of current manufacturing processes, practices, and policies, and broadens our understanding of production and innovation in the world economy. Chapters highlight how firms and industries modify existing processes to produce for established and emerging markets through dynamic and design-driven strategies. This approach allows readers to view transformations in production systems and processes across sectors, technologies and industries. Contributors include scholars ranging from engineering to policy to economic geography. The evidence demonstrates that manufacturing continues to matter in the world economy.
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Chapter 8: Engineering and manufacturing: concurrent maturation of xRL

Ben Wang, William C. Kessler and Andrew Dugenske


There is abundant evidence that manufacturing is a critical sector of a nation’s economy for building wealth. A number of studies from governments, corporations, policy institutes and academic institutions support this assertion and indicate that “making things” is an important way to improve a society’s standard of living (Duesterberg, 2013). The United States recently highlighted four key benefits of a robust manufacturing sector (Report to the President, 2012): 1. 70 percent of exports consist of manufactured goods; 2. one manufacturing job produces an additional six related supply chain jobs and ten jobs in the general economy; 3. 66 percent of scientists and engineers are employed in manufacturing; and 4. more than 50 percent of national research and development expenditures are made in manufacturing. A robust manufacturing sector is also critical to a country’s national security because modern militaries rely on advanced weapon systems and communication platforms to maintain superiority.

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