Climate, Pollution and Adaptation
Chapter 5: Source contributions of pollutants
As highlighted in Chapter 4, water quality monitoring is a significant exercise that is commonly undertaken to assess compliance with quality guidelines, evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies, obtain baseline data, examine spatial and temporal information on specific pollutants, or estimate the contribution of various pollution sources to a water body. However, two major issues are associated with water quality monitoring. First, the process of sampling and data acquisition can be time consuming and resource intensive. Second, large quantities of data, consisting of several measurements used to assess multiple water quality influencing variables are usually obtained. On one hand, the first issue can be addressed through the identification of simple surrogate parameters that can be monitored in place of other expensive water quality indicators. On the other hand, the second issue is tackled by employing pattern recognition techniques, which enable few parameters to reproduce the underlying structure of the data with limited loss of vital information contained in the original data-set. Consequently, both of these issues have been resolved in many instances through recourse to multivariate modelling or multivariate data analysis (MDA) techniques. The commonly used techniques are described in the ensuing sections of this chapter.
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