Responsible Futures Matter
Edited by Moazzem Hossain, Tapan Sarker and Malcolm McIntosh
Chapter 9: Migration of Bangladeshi workers to Malaysia: emerging lessons of economic and social costs and benefits at the migrant, migrant household and community levels
Asia’s varying economic performance, changing demographic characteristics and improved transportation, stimulated further by social and economic inequalities, both within and across nations, and expanding labour demands in the faster growing economies of the region, have triggered the emerging trend of Asia to Asia migration (A2AM) in the Asian region (UN, 2004; Hugo, 2005). The A2AM has been bolstered by three successive waves of rapid economic growth in some parts of Asia: Japan led the first wave; South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore (the newly industrialized economies–NIEs) the second wave, and Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia the third wave. These growth waves that accompanied expanded economic activities against the backdrop of falling rates of population growth and shifts in the labour market have produced labour shortages, especially in the semi and unskilled sectors, creating opportunities for migration of workers. In the emerging scenario of A2AM Bangladesh, a least developed country of Asia, has become a major labour sending country, and Malaysia a major receiving country of the Bangladeshi workers. This chapter discusses the political economic dimension – the ‘pull’ and ‘push’ factors – of migration of Bangladeshi workers to Malaysia.
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