Handbook of Research on Negotiation
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Handbook of Research on Negotiation

Edited by Mara Olekalns and Wendi L. Adair

Leading international scholars give insight into both the factors known to shape negotiation and the questions that we need to answer as we strive to deepen our understanding of the negotiation process. This Handbook provides analyses of the negotiation process from four distinct perspectives: negotiators’ cognition and emotion, social processes and social inferences, communication processes, and complex negotiations, covering trade, peace, environment, and crisis negotiations.
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Chapter 17: Environmental disputes: negotiating over risks, values and the future

Barbara Gray and Julia Wondolleck


Environmental negotiations embody many of the characteristics and dynamics of negotiations in other realms. They engage disputing parties representing legitimate but divergent interests in bargaining arrangements characterized by disparate power and influence, psychological framing, and the inevitable communication challenges associated with any human interactions. While similar in these regards, environmental negotiations nonetheless exhibit some notable distinctions. The nature of most environmental issues and, moreover, the public context within which these issues arise and are negotiated are markedly different from the other domains from which most negotiation theory has been developed and refined. This chapter briefly describes the distinguishing characteristics of environmental conflicts. It explains the variations observed within this field and summarizes major areas of research. It concludes with a discussion of the implications for future research and practice of environmental negotiation. Early environmental negotiation processes drew heavily from the established norms and practices of labor management and collective bargaining (Susskind and Weinstein, 1980; Harrington, 1994). However, early theory posited that environmental cases presented novel challenges.

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