Water Governance
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Water Governance

An Evaluation of Alternative Architectures

Edited by Asanga Gunawansa and Lovleen Bhullar

This insightful book explores urban water governance challenges in different parts of the world and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of publicly run, privatized, and public–private partnership managed water facilities.
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Chapter 10: Development of public–private partnerships in the water sector in Singapore

An Evaluation of Alternative Architectures

Robert L.K. Tiong, Zheng Sha and Abu Naser Chowdhury


Singapore is a small city-state located south of the Malay Peninsula, 137 km north of the equator. With a land area of only 712.4 km2 and population size of 5.18 million (as of 2011) (Department of Statistics Singapore, 2011a), Singapore has a population density of 7252 per km2, making it the third-highest among 216 countries in terms of population density in 2010 (World Bank, 2011b). The country has a tropical rainforest climate and in 2010 the annual rainfall was 2075mm (Department of Statistics Singapore, 2011a). However, Singapore does not have enough land to store the rainfall. Singapore has a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$303.7 billion with 14.5 percent real economic growth in 2010 (Department of Statistics Singapore, 2011a) and its per capita GDP ranked thirteenth-highest in 2010 (World Bank, 2011a). Figure 10.1 shows the time-series on population and GDP to demonstrate Singapore’s economic and human growth over time (Department of Statistics Singapore, 2011b, 2011c). The high population density, active economy and critical land constraints impose considerable pressure on water management in Singapore.

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