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Regulation, Governance and Convergence in the Media

Peter Humphreys and Seamus Simpson

Media convergence is often propounded as inevitable and ongoing. Yet much of the governance of the media sector’s key parts has developed along discrete evolutionary paths, mostly incremental in character. This volume breaks new ground through exploring a diverse range of topics at the heart of the media convergence governance debate, such as next generation networks, spectrum, copyright and media subsidies. It shows how reluctance to accommodate non-market based policy solutions creates conflicts and problems resulting in only shallow media convergence thus far.
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Index

Peter Humphreys and Seamus Simpson

ABC x, 134, 135, 137, 138, 153

Advertis-ers, -ing 19, 47, 68, 74, 91, 95, 106, 110, 126, 127, 131, 136, 139, 151, 157, 165–70, 174–5, 182, 186–90, 202, 208, 213.

Aeronautical Radio Navigation Service (ARNS) x, 60, 62

Aetha Consulting 60, 63

Africa x, 56–7, 61, 63, 66

African Union of Broadcasting (AUB) x, 61

Aggregation 106–7, 148, 153

Aggregators (news) 107, 148, 154, 171, 201

Pure 153

Hybrid (mixed with original reporting) 153

Airwaves, and see Spectrum 5, 25, 54–6, 58

Alcatel-Lucent 58

Algorithms 153, 161, 211

All3Media 187

All 4 Catch Up 202

Altmark Ruling (2003) 39–40

Amazon 147–8, 170, 190, 201–2, 212

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (2009) x, 42

Americas, the 56, 60, 64

America(n), also see United States of America (USA) vi, x, xii, xiii, xiv, 42, 44, 46–7, 57–9, 60, 76–8, 81–5, 109–12, 129, 134–40, 142, 152, 166–9, 170, 172–4, 190, 219, 221, 227, 229, 232–5, 237–8, 243–4

Americorps 172

Analogue television/broadcasting 54–5, 182

Ancillary copyright, also see copyright 107, 119, 126, 235

Anderson, Chris 147–8, 165, 216

Android 97

Ansip, Andrus 93,232

AOL x, 153, 162

Apple 97, 170, 190

Arab Spectrum Management Group (ASMG) x, 59

Arab States Broadcasting Union (ASBU) 61

ARD (organisation of German public service broadcasters) x, 67, 191, 216

Argentina 60

Armenia 59

Asia x, 36, 56, 61–2

Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union (ABU) x, 61

Association of European Radios (AER) x, 67, 216

Association of Professional Wireless Production Technologies (APWPT) x, 71

AT&T 17, 34, 58, 82–3

Audiences 61–2, 71, 133, 135–7, 149, 165–7, 170–71, 182, 190–91

Audience share (model of media concentration regulation) 141, 155, 209

Audiovisual Media Services Directive (EU) 21, 227

Aufderheide, Patricia 174, 219

Australia xiii, 36, 47–9, 177, 219, 229, 233–4

Austria 41, 174

Axel Springer publishing group (Germany) 107, 155

Azerbaijan 59

Bagdikian, Ben 131, 134, 217

Baker, C. Edwin 131, 139, 149, 217

Bangemann report 37, 223

Barnett, Steven 131, 158, 162, 171, 217, 236

Barriers to market entry (also see concentration) 21, 35, 128, 134, 138, 142, 152, 176, 200

Barwise, Patrick 74, 179, 186–7, 191, 217

BBC (British Broadcasting Company) x, 74, 112, 127, 149, 153, 156, 160–63, 171–2, 176–9, 182–3, 186, 190–91, 212–13, 217–19, 222, 228–9, 234, 237

BBC’s contribution to UK content production 179, 186, 217

Issue of top-slicing BBC licence-fee income 183–5

BBC’s new media and online engagement 177–8, 190

BBC website

BBC Worldwide

Also see Freeview, Freesat, iPlayer, and Public Value Tests

BcN consortium (South Korea) 51, 53

Belarus 59

Benkler, Yochai 146, 218

Berne Convention (for copyright) 102

Bertelsmann 134

Betamax 105

Better Regulation Directive (EU) 87

‘Big data’ 15, 234

Billboard magazine 104

Bing 126, 153, 201

Birt, Sir John 178

BitTorrent 82

Blogs/blogging 13, 84, 129, 148, 167, 178, 234, 245

Bloomberg 136

Bocquet, Wladimir 63

Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC) vi, x, 88–92, 94, 116, 129, 218

‘Bootlegger/Baptist’ coalitions/alliances 84, 95, 97, 110, 128

Borghi, Maurizio 112–4, 236

Bottlenecks (also see Concentration) 142, 144, 160, 210, 228

Brazil 60

Breveni, Benedetta 177, 190, 218

British Entertainment Industry Radio Group (BEIRG) x, 67, 218

British Film Institute (BFI) 127, 191

Broadband (also see High Speed Broadband) x, xiii, 5, 6, 14, 21, 25, 33–74, 78, 80–82, 84–7, 90, 96, 108, 116, 123, 125, 150, 178, 182, 184, 186–7, 189, 191, 195–7, 219, 221, 223–4, 227, 229–30, 233, 235, 238–42, 244

Broadband Convergence Network (South Korea) 50–1, 53, 235

Broadband Initiative Program (BIP, US) x, 42

Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP, US) x, 42

Broadcasting (industry, sector) vii–xiv, 5–7, 14–21, 24, 28–9, 34–5, 50, 54–74, 112, 115, 134–46, 154–5, 158–60, 162, 164, 167–8, 170–84, 185–6, 189–91, 200, 203, 205–6, 208–10, 213–16, 218–23, 225, 228, 231, 233–5, 238, 242–3

Broadcast Networks Europe (BNE) x, 61, 74

Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematograph and Theatre Union (BECTU) x, 183,186–7, 217–8, 243

Brown, Gordon 123

Brown, Tina 107

BSkyB (British Sky Broadcasting, also see Sky) 157, 183–4, 188

BT (British Telecom) 68, 129, 219

Bush, President George W. 81, 139, 174

Cable (networks, services, TV) 6, 12,19, 29, 34–6, 43, 47, 50, 53,58, 71, 81, 84–5, 112, 134–6, 160–61, 186, 209–10, 212, 225

Copper 29, 48

Fibre (optic) 5, 19, 48, 143

Modems 43, 81–2

Cable TV companies xi–xiii, 43, 50, 81–2, 84, 95–6, 134–6, 145, 184, 188–9, 240

Cachia, Comodini MEP 119, 227

Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom (CPBF) xi, 183, 219

Canada ix, 60, 145, 176–7, 186, 189, 237

Canada Media Fund (formerly Canadian TV Fund) 189

Caribbean 63

Castells, Manuel 11–12, 146, 148, 152, 219

Catch up TV 62

CBS x, 58, 134–6, 138, 153

C4 Channel 4) 156, 162, 182–3, 186, 191, 203, 212, 219

C5 (Channel 5) 191

Cell phone(s), also see mobile phone(s) 82, 174

Censorship/censoring 80, 105, 110, 169, 239

Center for Copyright Information (USA) 111

Center for Internet and Society (USA) 83, 103

Central America(n) 63

Centre for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom (CMPF) xi, 145

CEPT, see European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations

Charities 161

Chicago Tribune 136, 168

Chirac, President Jacques 120

Chomsky, Noam 150, 230

Chromecast 190

Clinton, President Bill 137

Cinema x, xi,xiii, 182, 186, 189, 228

Citizen journalism 13, 167, 178, 216

Citizenship News Voucher 173

Citizen rights campaigners 108–9, 221

Civil liberties 83, 104–5, 122

Clear Channel 135, 138

Climate change (policy) 37–8

CNN xi, 134, 136, 153

Columbia Journalism Review 166, 221

Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act (COICA) xi, 110

Comisión Interamericana de Telecomunicaciones (CITEL) x, 57, 60, 74

Commodification 105

Common carriage 7, 43, 77, 80–2, 198

Comcast (corporation) 82, 134–6

Commercial/commercialisation 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13–16, 24–6, 35, 48, 54–6, 64, 75–9, 81, 86, 88, 97, 117–18, 125, 127, 136, 138, 143, 147–50, 152, 162, 168, 170–71, 173, 175, 178, 180, 189, 195, 197, 202–3, 205–7, 212, 240

Commercial broadcast-ers/ing 18, 19,24, 35, 55, 61, 67–8, 147, 166–7, 171–3, 176, 179, 182–5, 187–8, 191, 197, 202–3, 205, 210, 212–13, 242

Commercially funded public service broadcasters (UK) 182–3, 191, 203

Communication on State Aid, see European Commission 21

Communications Act 1934 (USA) 84

Communications Act 2003 (UK) 144, 191

Communitarianism 8–9

Community Connect program (US) 43

community media 144, 161

Compaine, Benjamin 147, 220

Competition, also see Deregulatory competition viii, ix, xiii, 4, 19, 21–2, 37, 39, 41–3, 45, 50, 51, 71, 81–2, 85, 87–9, 91, 96, 103, 106, 114, 138, 141–2, 145, 147, 149, 165, 179, 213, 220, 237, 239

Competition Commission (UK) 158

Competition authority/law, policy 88–9, 91, 96, 107, 115, 140, 145–6, 155, 158, 160, 179, 211–12, 218, 221

Competitive procurement/tendering (also see contestability) 40. 182

Compte de Soutien à l’Industrie de Programmes (COSIP) xi, 188–9

Computerisation 5, 237

Computers/computing 5, 8, 12, 20, 77, 142, 146, 171, 176, 214, 219, 225, 233, 237

ComScore 153

Concentration (media) viii, ix, 26–8, 82, 128, 130–63, 167, 174, 178, 195, 200–1, 208–9, 217, 220, 223, 228, 237, 239, 243

Behavioural measures for regulating 158–9, 209–10

Divestment as a countermeasure 159, 208

‘Relevant markets’ for measuring/regulating 27, 154–5, 208–9

Structural measures for regulating 27, 130, 141, 154, 208–10

Conditional access (systems, regulation … .) 146, 160, 211

Congress (USA) 82–5, 102–3, 110, 168, 233

Connect America Fund 44, 46

Conseil Constitutionel (France) 120, 122

Consumer electronics 73, 173

Consumer (protection, rights, welfare) 21, 44, 90, 92, 119, 142, 202, 227

Consumer privacy, also see Privacy 45

ContentID system, also see filtering technology 111, 126

Content recognition technology, also see Filtering technology 119

Contestability (contestable funds) 162, 175, 185, 190–1, 213

Cooperatives 173, 209

Coordinating Committee for Media Reform (also see Media Reform Coalition) 188

Copyright law and enforcement viii, xi, xii, xiv, 4, 26–7, 95, 101–29, 133, 151, 162, 165, 186–7, 190, 195, 199, 200, 206–8, 217, 223, 225–8, 230–31, 235–6, 238–9, 241

Ancillary copyright 107, 119, 126, 235

Anti-circumvention technology 102, 109,

Anglo-Saxon common law approach 112, 114–16, 120

‘Blanket’ licensing 207

Copyright alert system 111–12, 124

Continental European civil law Droit d’auteur approach 112, 114–15, 120

EU copyright policy and law 112–19

‘free riding’ 27, 101, 106–7, 128, 199, 207–8, 233

Infringement/piracy xi, xiii, 27, 101–29, 199, 207–8, 217, 242

Licensing 111, 115, 119, 127, 207, 230

Litigation 108, 125

Neighbouring rights, also see ancillary copyright 107

Notice and Take Down process/Takedown notices 109–10, 116, 125

‘safe harbour’ 109, 116

Secondary/indirect liability 109, 116–19

US copyright policy and law 109–12

‘Strikes’ graduated response approach to enforcement 108–9, 111–12, 117, 121–5, 207, 217, 242

Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (UK) 123

Co-regulation 9, 86, 97

Costa Rica 60

Costs (general) 73, 84, 90, 91, 113, 168, 196, 241

Distribution 133, 147

Production 22, 132–3, 178

Marginal costs of production 133, 149

R & D 5

Running costs (network, institution) 49, 188

Service provision 40

Spectrum 176

Sunk costs 35

Council of Europe 141, 143–5, 220, 239

Council of Ministers (EU) xi, 70, 72, 93, 109

Crauford Smith, Rachael 155–6, 158–9, 209, 220

‘Creative commons’ 101, 103, 127, 206

Critical juncture (in media policy and regulation) 136–7

Critical political economy 95, 150

Cross-media (ownership, regulation) 133–4, 137, 140–41, 143, 155–7, 160, 208–9

Curran, James 147, 150, 152, 220, 228

DADVSI law (France) xi, 120

Daily Mail, The 149, 153–4, 169

Data protection 79, 87

Data roaming 45

Daudu, Festus 60

Declaration of urgency (government legislative procedure, France) 121

Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) technology xi, 80

Demand side (considerations, measures, policies) 50, 52, 151

Democracy 12, 27, 77, 131, 147, 149, 152, 163, 169, 172, 210, 217, 219, 230, 234, 238

Democrats (US) 83–5, 110, 137

Denial of service attack(s) 88

Denmark 129, 173, 177

Department of Culture, Media and Sport (UK) xi, 74, 217

De-regulation 137–9, 140–41, 154, 180, 201, 209

Deregulatory competition/competitive deregulation 141, 154

Deutsche Telekom 92, 96–7

Digital Agenda for Europe (DAE) xi, 37, 224

‘Digital divide’ 34

‘Digital dividend’ 25, 54, 56, 60, 186, 196

Digital Economy Act (UK) xi, 123–4, 217

DIGITALEUROPE (European industry group) 68, 72–3, 221

Digital literacy (policy goal) 37, 46

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) xi, 102, 109, 111, 113–4, 116, 129

Digital Rights Management xi, 113, 120

Digital Single Market Strategy (EU) 118

Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) xi, 36, 43

Digital switchover 54, 177, 182–3, 185

Digital terrestrial television (DTT) xi, 14, 54, 56–7, 63, 72, 177

Digitaluk 62, 71, 221

Digit(ali)isation viii, 5–6, 19, 25, 55–6, 102, 143–4, 184, 204, 206, 212

Disney, also see Walt Disney 104–5, 134–6, 170, 221, 228

Diversity (cultural, media ownership, voices/opinion) 61, 71–2, 74, 90, 92, 128, 131–2, 136, 138–9, 142–7, 149, 157, 160–61, 174, 209, 222, 236, 239

Divestment (as remedy for media concentration) 137, 159, 208–9

Dominican Republic 60

Downie, Leonard 166–8, 190, 221

Doyle, Gillian 131, 133, 141, 221

DVD recorders/players xi, 105, 133, 147, 157, 186

Eastern Pacific islands 56

E-commerce Directive (EU) 21, 51, 116, 118

Economic slump/crisis, see Financial Crisis 37–8, 42, 52, 176

Economies of scale/scope 57, 59, 133–4, 143, 151

Ecuador 60

Editorial codes and committees (to ensure pluralism, journalistic independence, etc) 159, 210

Editorial independence 144–5, 209–10

Education 11,12, 34, 36, 41, 46, 50–1, 61, 119, 172, 191, 198, 209

e-Europe 37

i-Europe 37

Electronic Communications Regulatory Framework (ECRF), also see European Union Regulatory Framework for Electronic Communications (EURFEC) vii, xi, 116

Electronic press 177

Electronic programme guides (EPGs) xi, 160, 210

Electronic (digital) switching 5

Emergency services 55

Enders Analysis 155–7, 222

Enhanced services (telecoms) 4, 6, 23

Entertainment x, 34, 61, 67, 106, 132–3, 147–8, 165, 170, 178, 186, 217–18, 220, 239

E-Rate program (US) 43

Ericsson 58, 63–4, 222

ESPN cable channel (US) 135

European Alliance of Viewers’ and Listeners’ Associations (Euralva) xii, 67

European Audiovisual Observatory 145, 228

European Broadcasting Union (EBU) xi, 61, 74

European Commission xi, xiii, 8, 10, 20, 22, 37–40, 65–6, 70–2, 80, 86–8, 92–3, 106, 112, 114–5, 117, 119, 144–5, 207, 216, 218, 223–4, 232, 241, 245

Communication on Copyright 118–19

Communication on State Aid 21

Consultation on Copyright 117–18

Green Paper on Convergence 20–21, 223

Green Paper on Copyright 112–13, 115, 223

Green Paper on Pluralism and Media Concentration 144, 223

European Communications Committee (of the CEPT) xi, 65, 73

European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) x, 64–5

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (ECHR) xi, 80, 86, 94

European Court of Justice (ECJ) 115, 129

European Federation of Journalists (EFJ) xi, 141–2, 225

European Grouping of Societies of Authors and Composers (GESAC, acronym of the French) xii, 117

European Parliament xi, 21, 40, 65, 72, 86–7, 91–3, 108, 113, 116–7, 119–20, 122, 126, 141, 144, 224–7

Culture Committee 119

Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee 119

Legal Affairs Committee 119

European Platform of Regulatory Authorities 145

European Spectrum Committee xi, 65, 216

European Telecommunications Network Operators (ETNO) xi, 68

European Union (EU) vii, viii, xi, xii, 4, 19, 20, 21, 25, 27, 37–42, 52, 63, 64–72, 76, 81, 85–94, 112–19, 120, 142, 144–6, 187, 212, 223–4, 226–7, 229, 233, 236, 239–41

European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights 80–81

European Union Copyright Directive (EUCD) xi, 113–15, 118–20, 228

European Union Regulatory Framework for Electronic Communication (EURFEC) 85–6, 96–7

European University Institute, Florence 145, 232

Ewaldsson, Ulf 64

Ex ante tests (of effects of state aid), also see Public Value Tests 21

Exchange rate approach to media concentration regulation (also see Weighting) 155, 159

Facebook 7, 14, 16, 75, 83, 97, 107, 124–5, 136, 149, 151–2, 160–61, 166, 170–71, 188, 207, 212, 230, 239–40

‘Fake news’ 15, 178, 189, 218, 240

Federal funding (US) 44–5, 168, 173

Federal government (US) 45, 173

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) xii, 34, 42, 81, 137, 227

File-sharing, also see Peer-to-peer file sharing xiii, 82, 104, 108, 110, 123–4

Filtering technology, also see content recognition and ContentID 79, 80, 86, 94, 108, 111, 117, 126, 148

Financial Crisis (2007/8) 37–8, 42, 52, 176

Financial Times, The 123, 127, 170, 228, 235, 241

Finland 36, 41–2, 66, 70, 129, 173, 216, 223

‘First click free’ policy (Google) 126

Fixed Link (telecoms) 45, 48, 97, 196

Infrastructure 45, 48, 97

Services 45, 53, 82

Focus (German news magazine) 209

Fordism (Fordist) 14

Fowler, Mark 137

Fox 58, 134–35, 138, 153, 221, 228

Framework Directive (EURFEC) 65, 86, 89, 90, 92, 226

France ix, 36, 41, 47, 72, 74, 101, 108–9, 115–7, 120–22, 125, 129, 140, 162, 174–7, 181, 186–7, 188–9, 191, 210, 231, 237

Freedman, Des 19, 23, 105–6, 109, 137, 139, 149–51, 180, 184, 220, 228

Freedom

Expression/Speech 94–5, 104, 122, 127, 208

Information 142

Internet 82, 84, 108–9

Media/Press xi, 71, 95, 145, 183, 210, 216, 219

Movement (EU Single Market) 112, 145

Political 74

Social 78

Free Press (media reform group) 83–4, 95, 172, 190–1

‘Free riding’, see Copyright

Freeview 177

Freesat 177

Functional separation 47

Gaming 51

Gannett 135–36

Gatekeepers (also see Bottlenecks) 144, 152–3, 157

General Electric 134–35

Germany viii, ix, x, 36, 47, 64, 66, 72, 101, 107, 115, 126, 129, 140–1, 145, 155, 160, 162, 170, 174, 176–7, 190–1, 202, 210, 231

Gibbons, Thomas vi, 120, 122, 136–8, 141, 144–6, 155, 158, 160, 176–7, 182, 184, 189–90, 211, 228–9

Global economic crisis/recession, see Economic/Financial Crisis

Global system for mobile (GSM) xii, 64

Globalisiation vii, 23, 123, 179, 231

Grant, Peter 132–3, 149, 178, 229

Global System for Mobile (GSM) xii, 64

Guardian, The (newspaper) 149, 153, 161, 169–70, 175, 179–80, 191, 220, 229–30, 239, 240

Guardian Media Group 170, 173, 180, 184, 229

Goldsmith, Jack 104, 108, 212, 229

Gomery, Douglas 147, 220

Google 26, 83–4, 95, 97, 104, 106–7, 110–11, 119, 124–6, 128–9, 136, 148, 151–4, 160–61, 166, 170, 187–8, 199, 201, 207–8, 210–12, 221–2, 230, 232, 235–6, 239–40, 242, 244

Gowers, Andrew 123, 229

Graduated response measures, see Copyright (‘Strikes’ …)

Greece 41, 177

Greenland 56

Hadopi law (France) xii, 121–2

Hanaro Telecommunications 51

Harcourt, Alison ix, 141, 144, 229

Hargreaves, Ian 127, 229

HBO xii, 134, 136

Healthcare (policy goal) 36, 38, 55, 94

Herman, Edward 150, 230

Highfield, Ashley 107

High Definition Television (HDTV) xii, 61, 73

High-speed (broadband, communication, networks) 4–5, 12, 25, 33–53, 178, 184, 195–6, 227

Hindman, Matthew 152–3, 162, 201, 230

Hitwise 149, 153

Hollande, President François 122

Hollywood (companies, entertainment model) 104, 128, 148–9, 199, 235

Home computers 176

Horten, Monica 104–5, 109, 114–15, 116–17, 120, 230

House of Commons Media, Culture and Sport committee 124, 184, 230

House of Lords (communications committee) 163, 186–8, 230

House of Representatives, see Congress 83, 110

Huffington Post 106, 153–4

Human Rights xi, 80, 86, 94, 125, 127, 218, 220, 235

Humphreys, Peter vi, vii-ix, 6, 13, 19, 53, 97, 116, 120, 122, 136–8, 140–41, 144–5, 155, 158, 160, 162, 174–7, 180–82, 184, 188–9, 191, 209–10, 229, 231

Hyperlink (structure of Internet) 152–3, 162

Incitement to racial hatred 212

Indian sub-continent 64

Information Society (EU agenda) vii, 20, 37, 105, 113–15, 120, 204, 221, 223, 225–6, 231–2

Information Society (South Korean development policy) 50

Information Superhighway, also see Information Society 84, 204

Infrastructure v, vii, viii, 5, 7, 8, 12, 14, 16, 19–21, 24–6, 33–97, 183, 185, 195–8, 204–6, 215, 240

Interactive (ity) 5, 8, 12, 13, 19, 35, 51, 73, 143, 170, 177, 205

Institute of Public Policy Research (IPPR) xii, 186, 243

Intel 58

Intellectual Property (IP), see Copyright

Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs), see Copyright

Inter-American Telecommunication Commission, see Comisión Interamericana de Telecomunicaciones (CITEL)

Inter-American Telecommunication Commission Permanent Consultative Committee II on Radiocommunications 57

Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee (US) 57

Internal Market (EU) 112, 115, 117–19, 129, 144–5, 223, 225, 231

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) viii, xii, 23, 55–7, 59, 61, 65, 74

Internet access (also see Net Neutrality) 20–21, 77, 79, 81–2, 85, 88, 91–4, 96, 110, 116, 121–2, 125, 145, 200, 207, 227

‘Access tiering’ 79

Blocking 77–80, 87–95

‘Throttling’ 78–9, 86, 91, 93

Internet congestion 78–80, 88, 91

Internet freedom campaigners (fair use/Open Internet activists) 84, 95, 104, 108–10, 217

Internet filtering, see Filtering Technology

Internet Governance Forum

Internet intermediaries also see ISPs, Google, Facebook, YouTube 26, 107–8,118–19, 125–8, 143, 151, 160–61, 207, 210, 212,

Internet literacy 50

Internet service providers (ISPs) xii, 26, 49, 75, 77–86, 88–90, 92–3, 96, 107, 109–11, 116–18, 121–5, 128–9, 151, 160, 173–4, 187, 210

Internet, pluralising Impact of (celebrants and sceptics) 146–54

Internet Protocol (IP) routing xiv, 8, 80

Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) xii, 78

International Association of Broadcasting (IAB) xii, 61

International mobile telecommunications (IMT) xii, 58–9

International Radio Telegraph Conference 56

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) viii, xii, 23, 55–7, 59, 61, 65, 74, 224, 232

Investigative journalism 133, 144, 159, 161, 167, 178, 181, 209

Investment (inward, local) 36, 141

iPhone 97, 171

iPlayer (BBC) 202

Ireland 41, 129, 177

IT839 broadband programme (South Korea) 50

Italy 68, 92, 129, 162, 174, 177

ITU, see International Telecommunication Union

ITV xii, 141, 156, 160, 162, 171–2, 177, 182–4, 186, 188, 191, 202, 209, 232, 236

ITV Hub 202

Japan 47

Jefferson, Thomas 102

Johnston Press 107

Journalism

Citizen journalism 13, 178, 216

Crisis of journalism 28, 165–72

Independence of 209

Investigative journalism 133, 159, 161, 178, 181

Pro-am journalism 167

Proprietorial interference 210

Public service journalism 26, 161, 164, 165–72, 181, 189–90, 201–3, 213

Subsidies for journalism 28, 107, 128, 164–91

Third party journalism (editorial space for) 209

Juncker, Jean-Claude 71

Kazaa 104

Kazakhstan 59

Klinenberg, Eric 137–9, 232

Knight Foundation (USA) 161

Kommission zur Ermittlung der Konzentration im Medienbereich, KEK xii, 155, 160

Korean Broadcasting Commission (South Korea) 50

Korean Information Infrastructure Initiative (South Korea) 50

Korea Telecom 51

Kyrgyz Republic 59

Lamy, Pascal 66

Lamy group xiii, 66, 72

Lamy report 66–9, 70–71, 216–19, 221–3, 233, 235, 237–8, 241–3

LA Times 136, 153

Latvia 93, 129

Leahy, Patrick 110

Levine, Robert 27, 101, 104, 106, 109, 117, 128–9, 199, 207–8, 233

Liberalisation, see Market liberalisation

Libertarian/ism 12, 24, 77, 84, 136, 199, 238

Licence fee (TV) 163, 176, 179, 183, 191, 213, 236

Lessig, Lawrence 83–4, 103, 108, 207, 233

Leveson, Lord Justice Bryan Henry 132, 233

Leveson inquiry (into the culture, practices and ethics of the British press) 132, 156, 188, 222–3

Levy (on industry, to support public service content) 26, 28, 107, 128, 161, 168, 183, 185–9, 191, 213

On commercial operators 185–188

On Internet intermediaries 128, 187–88

On spectrum use 185

On retransmission 186–7

On reuse 187

Libel (law) 18

Libraries 43–4, 103, 127

Limited liability (corporations) 173

Linear(ity) 13, 73, 160, 170, 183

Linear TV 13, 21, 61–2, 66, 160, 170, 183

Littoz-Monnet, Annabelle 12, 114–15, 233

Live streaming 80

Lobbying 84, 103–4, 107, 110, 116–17, 138–9, 144, 182, 184, 222

Local

authority (ies) 41–2

loop unbundling, see Unbundling xii, 50, 96

markets 10, 43, 136, 141, 162

press 131, 135, 138–9, 141, 162, 167, 175, 179–80, 208–9, 213

television 61, 131, 135–6, 138–9, 162, 167, 182, 184, 208–9

‘Long Tail’ (production, distribution) 147–8, 165, 200, 216

Manchester (University of Manchester) vi, viii, 141, 229, 231, 233–4

MAVISE database 145, 162,

Marketization, see Market liberalization

Market dominance, see Significant Market Power

Market failure 52, 85, 177–8, 184

Market liberalization 19, 20, 23, 37–8, 42, 47, 52, 74, 112, 115, 180, 198

Market power, see Significant Market Power

Marsden, Chris 77, 79, 80, 82, 86–8, 93, 218, 234

McChesney, Robert W. 13, 81, 83–4, 102–3, 110, 132, 134–9, 146, 150, 168–9, 172–4, 190, 233–4, 237

Media Concentration Commission (see Kommission zur Ermittlung der Konzentration im Medienbereich, KEK) xii, 155, 160

Media literacy 21, 172

Media pluralism, see Pluralism

Media Pluralism Monitor (MPM) xii, 145, 162

Media Reform Coalition 154–5, 188, 235

Mediaset 68, 235

Mergers (media, also see concentration)

Microsoft 97, 125–6, 207, 242

Micropayment s, also see paywalls 167,

Microwave (technology) 5–6

Middle East 56–7

Mission Olivennes (France) 120–21

Mobile broadband 14, 25, 47, 53, 56–8, 61, 63–73, 85, 197, 229, 245

Mobile (tele)communication 5, 14, 44, 54–72, 90, 97, 152, 197, 205, 227

Mobile phones (also see cell phones) 11, 13, 97, 148, 176, 186–7, 233

Mobile wireless, also see Mobile (tele)communication 57

Mobile phone operators 97, 186–7

Mobile TV 189

Modem (technology) 5, 43, 81–2

Moldova 59

Monitoring

Copyright enforcement 108, 110

Internet traffic and Net Neutrality 80, 86–8, 91

Media concentration 144–5, 154, 159

Monopoly/oligopoly, also see Significant market power 17, 34, 82, 87, 96, 102–3, 128, 133–4, 136, 139, 140, 147, 150–51, 167, 175, 179, 201, 210, 217, 220, 242

Montagnini, Maria Lillà 112–14, 236

Morrison, Steve 188, 191, 236

Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) xii, 111, 116, 129

Motorola Mobility 58

MTV 134

Murdoch, Rupert 106–7, 134–5, 140–41, 170, 208, 228

Music (recording) business/industry 27, 101, 104, 108–9, 123, 134, 165, 199

Music downloading 51, 104, 109–10, 123, 148, 199

Must carry rules 92

Myspace 135, 152

Napoli, Philip 139, 236

Napster 104

National Assembly (France) 121

National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) 58

National Broadband Map (US) 44

National Broadband Plan (US) xiii, 42–4, 221, 227, 233, 241

National Information Society Agency (South Korea) 50,

National Ultra-High-Speed broadband programme (France) 41

National Regulatory Authorities (EU) xiii, 86–7, 89–92

National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA, US) xii, 44–5, 57

National Union of Journalists (NUJ) xiii, 186, 243

NBC xiii, 42, 134–5, 137–8, 153

NBN (Australian communications company) xiii, 48–9, 239, 241

NBN Access Bill (Australia) 48–9

Negroponte, Nicholas 147, 236

Neighbouring rights, see copyright (ancillary copyright) 107

Neo-liberalism 4, 18–19, 22–8, 35–6, 38, 42, 52, 76, 85, 87, 137, 146, 154, 174, 180, 188, 195–9, 201–2, 205, 207, 209

Netflix 147–8, 170, 190, 201–2

Netherlands 86, 129, 162, 231

Network(s), also see Television and Cable v, vii, viii, xiii, 1–100, 136, 146–8, 170, 174, 196–8, 201, 205–6, 218–19, 221–2, 224, 226–8, 233–6, 240

Network effects 151

Network traffic management 23, 78–9, 86–9, 91–2, 96

Network efficiency/performance 79

Network filtering, see Filtering Technology

Network infrastructure (also see Infrastructure) vii, 16, 20, 33–7, 41–2, 52–3, 82, 87, 206

Network operators, also see Telecoms operators 115–17

Net neutrality vii, viii, 4, 21, 25–6, 75–97, 116, 173, 194, 196, 197–9, 206, 217–19, 222, 224, 230, 233–8, 240, 244

EU 85–94

Netherlands 86

Norway 86

UK 86

US 81–85

Neutrality (technological neutrality) 28, 41, 164, 181, 189, 190, 213

New Labour (UK) 123, 141

News Corporation 106, 128, 134–6, 140, 152, 156–7, 238

News International (News UK since 2013) 119, 126, 156, 180, 208, 222

News/News media, also see Aggregators 13, 15. 16, 28, 61, 81, 106–7, 126–7,130–38, 148–9, 153–7, 160, 162, 164–91, 201–3, 208–11, 221, 228

Newspaper Preservation Act 1970 (US) xiii, 139

Newspapers (Press) vii, xi, xiii, 5, 13, 18, 27–8, 101, 106–7, 119, 126, 131, 133–6, 139, 140–2, 153–6, 158, 161–2, 165–76, 177, 179–81, 188–91, 202–3, 208–10, 213, 216, 233, 237, 242

News UK, see News International

New World Information and Communication Order 23

New Yorker magazine 104, 107, 162

New York Post 134

New York Times 153, 175, 237, 244

New Zealand 36, 47, 177, 229,

Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) group 63

Next Generation Networks (NGN) xiii, 20, 25, 33–53, 54, 63, 96–7, 196, 204, 228–9, 235, 240

Next Generation TV 58

Nicaragua 60

Nichols, John 168–9, 172–4, 190, 234, 237

Nielsen 153

Noam, Eli 151, 237

Nokia 58, 63, 68, 237

Non-linear services 61–2, 73, 160

Non-profits 168, 173

North America(n) vi, 229

North American Broadcasters Association (NABA) xiii, 61

O2186

Obama, President Barack 78, 84, 111, 244

Oceania 56

Ofcom xiii, 28, 71, 73, 123, 125, 149, 155–8, 160, 163, 169–72, 182–91, 202–3, 217–19, 229, 232, 237–43

Office of Fair Trading (UK) 158

On-demand (TV, apps, etc.) 190–91

Online media companies/providers/services vii, 8, 12, 13, 15, 16, 20, 51, 58, 79, 83, 87, 94, 106–7, 109, 131, 135, 149, 152–3, 155, 161, 164–71, 175–9, 181–4, 190, 199, 201, 213

Onse 51

Open Internet Order (US) 82

Open Society Foundation(s) 141, 243

Orange 68, 186, 238

O’Reilly, Michael 85

Osborne, George 179, 219

Ownership, media viii, 17, 130–63, 172–3, 191, 199, 208, 210, 217, 221–3, 225, 228, 231, 235–7

Packet differentiation 80

Pai, Ajit 84–5

Panama 60

Paris Convention for the Protection of Intellectual Property 102

Path dependency 136, 175, 179

Pay-TV/pay-per-view 19, 146, 160, 170, 211, 213

Paywalls, also see Micropayments 126, 175

PBS (US) xiii, 135

Peer-to-peer file sharing 104, 108, 120, 123

Personal Video Recorders 186

Pew (Research) Center (US) 46, 135–6, 138, 153, 166, 201, 230, 238

Piracy, see ‘copyright’

Pirate Bay 104

Platform(s) 7, 13, 22, 27, 33, 50, 58, 61, 66–7, 71, 75, 78, 95–7, 107–8, 110, 127, 136, 142, 144–5, 149, 152, 154, 156, 160–62, 170, 177, 181–3, 186–7, 191, 199, 200-01, 207, 209, 212, 241

Pluralism (media) viii, xi, xii, 28, 72, 90, 92, 128, 130–63, 174, 178, 201–2, 208–13, 223, 231–2, 239

External pluralism 132, 212

Internal pluralism 132, 159, 210

Pornography 212

Powell. Michael 82, 139

Power law distribution (of information, data) 152–3

Press, see Newspapers

Privacy 13, 15, 45, 79, 80, 87, 105, 116–18, 125, 127, 129, 200, 207, 227

Privatisation 52

Producers Alliance for Cinema and Television (PACT) xiii, 182–3, 238

Programme Making and Special Events (PMSE) community xiii, 71, 74

Protect Intellectual Property Act (PIPA) xiii, 110

Pro7/Sat 1 Media AG (Germany) 155

Public health service 55

Public Interest Test (for determining threat to media pluralism) 157–9, 238

Public Media 2:0174, 219

Public Media Trust 188

Pubic Private Partnership (PPP) xiii, 39, 40, 44, 48, 189, 213, 227

Public private initiatives, also see Public Private Partnership 52

Public funding, see Subsidy

Public goods 52, 101, 128, 181

Public safety 36, 44

Public service/interest, also see Public service broadcasters 16, 25–6, 52, 55, 61, 67, 95, 137, 156–9, 167, 198, 202, 205, 215, 217, 236, 238

Public service broadcasters – ing (PSB) x, xiii, 16, 18, 19, 21, 28, 34, 67, 71, 136, 143–4, 161, 164–91, 200, 201, 203, 212–13, 216–18, 223, 231, 236–8, 243

Public service media (PSM) viii, xiii, 28, 161, 164–91, 203, 206, 212, 231

Public service journalism 26, 28, 161, 164–91, 201–3, 213

Public service plurality 161, 182, 185, 212

Public service publisher (PSP) x, xiii, 28, 164, 182–91, 215, 219, 228, 232, 237, 240, 243

Public sphere 34, 143

Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTNs) xiii, 36

Public Value Test(s) 179–80, 190–91, 231, 236

Publisher or platform (debate relating to Internet intermediaries) 107–8, 118–19, 125, 161, 200, 207, 212

Publisher(s)/publishing industry (sector), 5, 7, 16–18, 104, 107, 118–19, 126–8, 134–6, 139, also see Newspapers 143, 155, 161, 173–4, 177, 180, 196, 210, 214–5, 232, 236, 241

Quality of service guidelines (and net neutrality) xiii, 86–7, 91, 218

Radio (broadcasting, station, etc.) xiii, 7, 13, 38, 55–9, 60, 62, 65, 67, 69, 71, 134–8, 142, 151, 155, 168, 191, 200, 209, 213, 216, 218, 239

Radio Conference Subcommittee (RCS) 57

Radio Spectrum Decision (EU) 65, 226

Readerships 165, 171, 189

Reagan, President Ronald 137, 139, 162, 174

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) xiii, 111, 129

Regional Commonwealth in the field of Communications (RCC) xiii, 59

‘Regulatory state’ 22, 236

Relevant market, see Concentration

Republicans (US) 82–4, 110, 162

Retransmission fees 187

Reuse fees 187

Reuters Institute 179, 181, 189, 191, 217, 222, 236–7

Richards, Ed 182

Rudd, Kevin 47

Rural Utilities Service (RUS, US) xiii, 43

Rusbridger, Alan 175, 240

Russia 59

‘Safe harbour’ (copyright enforcement) 107, 109, 111, 116, 118

Samsung 58

Sarkozy, President Nicolas 120, 175, 220

Satellite (TV, broadcaster – ing, communication) xi, xii, xiii, 6, 19, 34, 55–6, 58, 69, 71, 112–13, 115, 134, 141–2, 151, 160–1, 170, 177, 184, 186, 188–9, 209–10, 212, 225, 240

Satellite and Cable Broadcasters’ Group (SCBG) xiii, 184, 188, 240

Scandinavia 174

Schools 39, 43–4

Schudson, Michael 166–8, 190, 221

Scott Trust 173

Search engines (also see Google, Yahoo!, AOL and Bing) 106, 118–19, 125, 151–2, 156, 160, 187, 201

Sector-specific regulation (media concentration) 27–8, 130, 154

Security

National 13, 55, 137, 198

Internet/network/online 15, 79, 80, 86, 92, 215

Self-regulation 151, 202, 212

Senate,

French 121

US, also see Congress 83, 110

Sepulveda, Daniel 59

Services Ancillary to Broadcasting/Programme making (SAB/SAP) 60, 74

Services of General Economic Interest (SGEI) xiii, 39, 40

Set Top Box 45, 160

Share trading 51

Share of reference approach (to cross-media concentration regulation) 156

Significant Market Power (net neutrality, media concentration) xiii, 35, 88, 90, 96, 142, 146, 157

Simpson, Seamus vi-ix, 6, 7, 19, 34, 38–9, 53, 97, 116, 231, 235–6, 240–41

Sky (also see BSkyB) 69, 156, 170, 186, 188, 238, 241

‘Smart phones’, also see mobile communication 46, 55, 175

Smith, Lamar S. 110

SnapChat 16, 75

Socialist Party, PS (France) xiii, 121–2, 129, 141

Social media/networks 7, 11, 75, 118, 148–9, 151–2, 61, 174, 178, 190, 201, 203, 207, 218–9, 220, 228, 230

Sony 105, 134

South America(n) 63

South Korea viii, 47, 50–53

South Korean Ministry of Information and Communications 50

Spain 41, 74, 101, 107, 126, 129, 162, 177, 188, 216

Spam 80, 88

Specialised services (and net neutrality) 78, 91, 94, 96

Spectrum viii, x, xi, xiii, 4, 14, 19, 25, 38, 44–5, 47, 54–74, 82, 88, 97, 195–7, 205, 216–17, 219, 221–22, 226, 229, 235, 237–8, 241–3, 245

Auctioning 44, 64, 72

‘Beauty contests’ 64

Co-primary allocation 57–8, 61, 63, 65, 68, 70, 73–4

Discounting (for broadcasters) 176, 182

Pricing 185, 228

Primary allocation 57–60, 64–5, 71

Taxing 173

Spiegel, Der (new magazine) 209

Sponsorship 19, 182

Sprint-Nextel 58

State aid and competition law (with regard to application to public services) 21, 39–40, 223–4, 231

State Department (US) 57

Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) xiii, 110

Streaming services (TV, film), also see Netflix and Amazon 80, 170, 190, 201–2, 218

Structural separation 49

Student media 161, 172–3

Subscription 19, 46, 121, 126, 157, 167, 170, 175, 182, 186, 202

Subsidy v, viii, 1x, xi, 4, 26, 28, 41–2, 44, 48, 103, 130, 161–2, 164–191, 195, 201–2, 213, 231, 237, 241

Direct press subsidies 174,237

Indirect press subsidies 174, 237

VAT exemption 174–5, 180–81, 191

Voucher (Citizenship News Voucher) 173

Also see tax credits/breaks

Substitutability 133

Sufficiency (of plurality of media, views, media controllers) 158, 208, 212

Sun, The 140, 169

Sunday Times, The 140, 242

Supply side (considerations, measures, policies) 47, 52, 162, 240

Surveillance 13, 86, 105

Sweden 36, 41–2, 66, 129, 162, 177, 210, 223, 243

Tablets 11, 55, 171, 176

Tajikistan 59

Tambini, Damian 131, 155–6, 158–9, 209, 220

Tariff re-balancing 34

Tax credits, tax breaks/relief 47, 168, 173–4,

Film tax exemption 188

VAT exemption 174–5, 180–81, 191

Technological determinism 52, 150

Technological neutrality, see Neutrality

Telecommunications (industry, regulation, sector) vii. 1x, xi-xiii, 5, 6, 14, 17, 18, 20, 23, 34, 36, 39, 42–3, 48–53, 56–8, 64–5, 68, 71–4, 77, 81, 83–5, 93, 97, 135, 197–8, 212, 214, 223, 231, 233–4, 240–41

Telecoms/telephone companies/operators 36, 46, 48, 50–51, 53, 58, 68, 77, 81–5, 95–6, 241

Telecommunications Act 1996 (US) 43, 81, 135, 137–8, 217

Telecommunications Management Group 58

Telecoms Package (EU) 108–9, 116–17, 129, 230

Telefonica 68–9, 242

Telegraph, The Daily 153, 242

Teleindustrien (Danish telecoms industry organisation) 68

Telematics 5, 219, 227

Telephone companies, see Telecoms companies/operators

Television, TV vii, ix, xi-xiv, 6, 7, 13, 18, 25, 51, 54–74, 78, 81, 95, 133, 134–9, 140–46, 148, 151, 155, 166, 168, 170–72, 177, 179, 182–4, 186–7, 189, 190, 200, 202, 209, 216–17, 219, 222, 228–30, 232, 235, 237, 240

Networks 51, 134–5, 137–8, 153, 166

‘Television of the Future’ law (France) 189

Telia 41

Telstra 47–9

Thatcher, Prime Minister Margaret 188

Thomson, Robert 106

Thrunet 51

Times, The 106–7, 126, 140, 180–81, 191, 208, 216, 218–9, 220–21, 228, 236, 239, 240, 242

Time 134, 136

Time Warner 134–6, 152, 162

T-Mobile 186

Trade Marks Act 1994 (UK) 123

Traffic management, also see network traffic management 23, 78–9, 86–9, 91–2, 96

Transnational media (operations, ownership, concentration) 143–6, 152, 220

Treaty of Amsterdam (EU) 39

Tribune (US newspapers) 136

trust (ownership) 161, 173, 180, 188

Turkmenistan 59

Turner Broadcasting 136

Twentieth Century Fox 135

Twitter 7, 13, 14, 75, 161, 207, 212

Two-sided market(s) 79

UK Film Council 183, 243

Ukraine 59

Ultra high frequency (UHF) band xiv, 55, 59, 62, 65, 67, 69, 72–3, 137, 216, 218–19, 221–3, 233, 235, 237–9, 241–2, 244–5

UMP (French conservatives) xiv, 120–21

Unbundling (network local loop) xii, 50, 85, 96

United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property 102

United Kingdom (UK) xiv, 18, 19, 22, 28, 41, 47, 62, 64–5, 68–9, 71, 73–4, 86, 101, 105, 107, 109, 112, 116–17, 120, 122–31, 140–41, 149, 153–8, 161–2, 164–5, 169–91, 202–3, 208, 211–13, 229, 231, 235, 239, 240, 242–3

United States of America (USA), xiv, 27–8, 42–7, 57–9, 78, 81–5, 102, 109–12, 134–40, 190, 200, 207, 242–3

Universal (Hollywood) 105

Universality (coverage, access), see Universal Service

Universal Service 34, 41, 44–6, 86, 88–9, 91, 94, 178, 226–7

Universal Service Directive (EU) 86, 88–9, 91, 129, 226

Universal Service Fund (US) 44–6

Universities and colleges (also see student media) 50, 127, 161–2, 167

University of Manchester (media policy research) vi, viii-ix, 141

University of Westminster (media policy research) 158–9, 162, 217

Univision 136

USA Today 153

US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia 83

User generated content 13

Uzbekistan 59

Vanity Fair magazine 107

VAT xiv, 124, 175, 180

VCRs xiv, 105, 186

Verizon 58, 82–3, 104, 244

Vestager, Margrethe 211

Viacom 111, 126, 128, 134, 199, 208, 242

Video-sharing, also see YouTube 125, 201–2

Virgin Media 186–188

Viruses 80, 88

Vodafone 96, 186

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) xiv, 80, 90, 91

Voss, Axel MEP 119

Wall Street Journal 134–5, 153

Walled Gardens (and Net Neutrality) 95, 97

Walt Disney 135–6, 170

Ward, David 140, 236

Washington Post 83, 153, 175, 190, 221, 233

Weighting (for cross-media concentration regulation) 155–6, 159

WhatsApp 16, 75

Wheeler, Tom 59, 85

White, Aidan 142

WhiteSpace Alliance 69, 243

Whittingdale, John 179

Wider Spectrum Group (WSG) 63, 71, 243

WiFi 55, 62

Wikipedia 110

Windows 97

Wired magazine 104, 147, 165, 216

Wireless Broadband, also see Mobile Phone/Wireless x, xii, 14, 25, 36, 38, 43–9, 54–74, 82, 205, 241, 244

3G 46

5G 38–9, 63–4, 96, 224, 245

Wireless Innovation Fund (US) 44

Wireless Internet access 82

Wireless Internet service 82

Wood, Chris 132–3, 149, 178, 229

World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) 56

World Broadcasting Unions (WBU) xiv, 62, 243

World Copyright Treaty (WCT) xiv, 102, 109

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) xiv, 102, 109, 113, 120

World Radiocommunication Conference xiv, 56, 224, 232, 239

Wu, Tim 77, 83, 104, 108, 151, 162, 212, 229, 244

Yahoo! 153–4, 187, 241

YouTube 13, 26, 106–7, 109–11, 119, 125–6, 128, 152, 160, 170, 201–2, 207, 210, 242