Challenges and Opportunities
- Elgar original reference
Edited by Debra A. Major and Ronald J. Burke
Chapter 7: Effects of gender and parenting on work–life integration
Experiences at the intersection of work and life depend – at least in part – on gender and parental status. Indeed, role (Katz and Kahn, 1978), social role and gender role (Eagly, 1987) theories are generally interpreted to make convergent predictions that women and parents will encounter more challenges at the work–life interface than men and non-parents. However, despite these theoretical predictions, empirical research on work–life integration provides mixed evidence. When examining both meta-analytic and study specific findings, some point to gender differences while others suggest there are no differences (e.g., Behson, 2002; Ford et al., 2007; Grzywacz and Marks, 2000; Kossek and Ozeki, 1998). Similarly, studies that contrast the experiences of men and women with and without children also offer mixed results (e.g., Frone, 2003; Hill et al., 2003; Hill, 2005).
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