Rethinking Corporate Governance The Forming of Operative and Financial Strategies in Global Corporations
The Forming of Operative and Financial Strategies in Global Corporations
Chapter 4: Before World War I
16 June 1288 was the day when a Swedish bishop, Peter, acquired about one-eighth of Kopparberget – an estate with mills, arable land, pastures, fishing-waters and forests. At the time, the Swedish aristocracy, including the King, owned Kopparberget, so all of them signed the sales agreement. The original document unambiguously describes the traded unit as a ‘company’, making Kopparberget (later renamed Bergslaget, Stora Kopparbergs Bergslag, Stora and Stora Enso) the oldest one still existing in the world. The use of the Swedish forests by private persons had been regulated at least since the 16th century by way of several regulations from the statutes of 1542 (during the era of the Swedish king Gustav Vasa) to the rather detailed legislation of 1734. Before that, far into the 16th century, any piece of land was ‘owned’ by the one who settled down on it and was able to defend the taking. The state’s organized presence in the Swedish forest sector started in 1638, when its National Forestry Office (Riksjagmastarambetet) was founded to watch over the crown forest areas and other public forests.
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