Edited by Frank Horwitz and Pawan Budhwar
Chapter 11: Careers in emerging markets
Over the past 40 years, much attention has been paid to the changing nature of careers in the Western world, in particular within the US. Careers in the US have generally been defined as an accumulation of role-related experiences over time (Hall, 1976) or as the evolving sequences of work experiences over time (Arthur, Hall and Lawrence, 1989). Under these definitions, careers are important as a focus of both research and practice as they play a key role in determining the overall quality of life (Hall, 2002). It is generally accepted that the context of work within developed countries1 has changed dramatically, due to factors such as the transformed economic landscape, increased job insecurity, growing reliance on technology, changing workforce demographics such as the ageing workforce and a resulting shift in the needs and preferences of both individuals and their employers. These changes to the context in which individuals and organizations operate mean that the nature of careers has also changed. Certainly recent literature has focused on contemporary forms of careers such as those known as boundaryless, protean, nomad, spiral or post-corporate careers (Chudzikowski, 2012). Most work on careers, and in particular that on contemporary careers, appears to assume that these changes to career structures are universalistic (Chudzikowski et al., 2009). Under a universalistic paradigm, we would presume that careers are ultimately similar regardless of the context in which they operate. However, more recently, authors have emphasized the importance of national context in determining the nature of careers and career transitions.
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