Managing Water in Multi-Layered Political Systems
Edited by Dustin E. Garrick, George R.M. Anderson, Daniel Connell and Jamie Pittock
Chapter 14: The hydro-institutional Challenge of managing water economies of federal rivers: a case study of Narmada River Basin, India
Many Indian river basins falling in the semi-arid and arid parts of India are physically water scarce with demands for water far exceeding the utilizable renewable water resources. The most important of them are Narmada, Cauvery, Krishna, Sabarmati and Pennar basins (Kumar et al., 2012). The demand for water in India continues to grow as a result of rising population, rapid urbanization and industrialization, more advanced environmental services and the changing livestock and farming economies (Kumar, 2010; Kumar et al., 2012), while utilizable fresh water resources are dwindling due to groundwater depletion and quality deterioration and pollution of water bodies from point and non-point sources (Mukherjee and Chakraborty, 2012). With excessive diversion of surface water and uncontrolled mining of groundwater, these basins are facing severe environmental water stress (Smakhtin et al., 2004).
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