Migration and Freedom
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Migration and Freedom

Mobility, Citizenship and Exclusion

Brad K. Blitz

Migration and Freedom is a thorough and revealing exploration of the complex relationship between mobility and citizenship in the European area. Drawing upon over 170 interviews, it provides an original account of the opportunities and challenges associated with the rights to free movement and settlement in Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Spain and Russia. It documents successful and unsuccessful settlement and establishment cases and records how both official and informal restrictions on individuals’ mobility have effectively created new categories of citizenship.
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Chapter 3: Freedom of movement in Europe

Brad K. Blitz


Freedom of movement for workers shall be secured within the Community. Such Freedom of Movement shall entail the abolition of any discrimination based on nationality between the workers of the Member States as regards employment, remuneration and other conditions of work and employment. (Article 45, Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) The right to the free movement of persons is one of the four fundamental freedoms that underscore the Internal Market. From the inception of the European Economic Community, it was understood that the creation of a common European market would require that not only goods and capital would travel freely but also people and services. This idea was discussed at length in the 1956 Spaak Report on the General Common Market which gave way to the Treaty of Rome, establishing the EEC (Spaak, 1956). In Chapter 3 (regarding the free movement of labour), the Spaak Report considered the free movement of people in terms of restocking and re-allocating labour across a recovering post-war Europe. Each State will increase annually the number of workers from other Member States which it will allow to be employed.

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