Migration and Freedom
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Migration and Freedom

Mobility, Citizenship and Exclusion

Brad K. Blitz

Migration and Freedom is a thorough and revealing exploration of the complex relationship between mobility and citizenship in the European area. Drawing upon over 170 interviews, it provides an original account of the opportunities and challenges associated with the rights to free movement and settlement in Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Spain and Russia. It documents successful and unsuccessful settlement and establishment cases and records how both official and informal restrictions on individuals’ mobility have effectively created new categories of citizenship.
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Chapter 5: European language teachers in Italy

Brad K. Blitz


Now in this whole process, I do not officially appear. My name is not on the exam commission, and someone else signs the register, the ‘verbale’. We used to sign the verbali, but not anymore, since signing it would be support in court to our claim for teacher status. But we're not; we're watermelon pickers. (Language teacher, Central Italy, 27 June 2007) The right to freedom of movement is one of the cornerstones of the European Union and is associated with the prohibition against discrimination on the basis of nationality (TFEU Art. 18). For over 50 years these provisions have been central to the ambition of creating a European union of peoples and have been reaffirmed in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union in the context of EU citizenship and the rights of workers as discussed in Chapter 3. Together these provisions set out the legal basis for European nationals to travel and settle in other European states.While the scope of EU anti-discrimination provisions has grown over recent years to include matters of race, age and sex (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights 2010), nationality remains a contentious issue within the workplace. The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has on numerous occasions concluded that EU nationals have not been treated fairly when they have competed for jobs outside their home states, even after many years of residence.

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