Evidence from China and Vietnam as Key Emerging Economies
Edited by Hans Bruyninckx, Qi Ye, Nguyen Quang Thuan and David Belis
Chapter 9: Public–private partnerships in CDM implementation in Vietnam
Public–private partnerships (PPPs) have been developed all over the world as innovative tools for public policy since the 1980s–1990s (Caroll and Steane 2000; Osborne 2000; Rosenau 2000; Walzer and Jacobs 1998). They are defined as a new form of global governance in which a diverse number of actors from civil society, government and business circles merge into a decentralized multi-sectoral network that can bridge multilateral regimes and local action. Within the climate regime, the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) can be seen as such a decentralized multi-sectoral network, designed to implement greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction projects at the local level. During the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg, the increasing participation of non-state actors was recognized as a new defining element in global environmental governance. The WSSD embraced two important messages: (1) that sustainable development is no longer solely the concern of environmentalists, but should involve and engage people all over the world; and (2) that the promotion of partnerships across different actors and levels of governance should be a key approach for sustainable development (Benner and Witte 2004; Biermann 2010; Rogers et al. 2008).
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