A Practice-Based Approach
In order to have any form of entrepreneurship, it is pretty much agreed that creation of something new of value is a core aspect. The process of creation requires some form of entrepreneurial action which leads to creating new products or processes, creating a new market, creating new ventures, and developing new channels of distribution or even personal initiatives (Schumpeter, 1934; Gartner, 1985). The approach to creation in the entrepreneurial context is most often characterized as a prescriptive, linear process. This process is inherent in our textbooks, our syllabi, and the way we generally teach entrepreneurship, which is often driven towards the writing of a business plan. A quick survey of business plan competitions shows that every year in the U.S. there are more than 230 business plan competitions. In any month, there are between 30 and 70 business plan events for the various phases, including submissions, presentations, final presentations, and awards (http://www.bizplancompetitions. com/competitions/). This obsession with the business plan is rooted in what Neck and Greene (2011) refer to as a process approach, where entrepreneurship is taught in a linear fashion, by identifying an opportunity, developing the concept, assessing and acquiring resources, implementing the business, and exit (Morris, 1998). The predominant model is to approach teaching and pedagogy in entrepreneurship from a "planning" perspective, which generally involves identifying and evaluating an opportunity, determining the resources, and creating actions to exploit the opportunity (Neck and Greene, 2011).
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